Writers-satirists and their role in society
Satire is a sharp manifestation of the comic, whenlaughter becomes a weapon in the fight against various human vices. From ancient times, satirical writers played a special role in society, they were called exposers and truth-seekers. Through the allegorical and ambiguous nature of their works, they tried to talk about what was forbidden to bear on people and what was sometimes punishable by law.
Genre takes its origins back in ancient Rome. It is then that an understanding of what the role of the satirical writer in society is born. The first authors of the special form of the literary word - Aristophanes, Menander, Lucilius and others - created small verses in which they mocked the policies of a ruler, the life of the nobility and other social facts.
The social role of the satirical writerto evolve in the Middle Ages, when in Europe created classics of humor - Giovanni Boccaccio, Francois Rabelais and Miguel de Cervantes. The first exposers of church stagnancy, the feudal system and romantic views significantly influenced the minds of a little enlightened Europe. Forced to see, evaluate and fight the vices of the century.
Feature of the genre
Satire deliberately distorts reality, a specialimage reproduces reality, where all heroes and events are conditional images that reflect the vices and lives of individuals or segments of the population. A distinctive feature of this genre is a sharply negative assessment of what is happening. The main weapon of satire - grotesque and hyperbole, ridicule and reproof is built by adding an unbelievable or greatly exaggerated phenomenon to the text.
Often satire becomes very subjective,because often writers-satirists themselves are subjected to sharp criticism. All of them can be called in one word - enlighteners, through derision of public shortcomings, people learned to look deep into the problem, see imperfection and, consequently, look for new benchmarks. This is the essence of satire - the assertion of high moral ideals, truth, love, honesty and freedom.
The origins of satire in Russia
Back in the XIX century, AS Pushkin deduced the formula that is true for all our people: "A poet in Russia is more than a poet." Until recently, it was literature that formed the self-consciousness and civil position of Russian people. And a special role here belonged to the satirical writers.
In Russia, a sharp accusatory humor was bornin the Middle Ages, but then he still wandered among the people in the form of fairy tales and jokes and was transmitted orally. The authors did not call themselves, preferring anonymity, but the people went for a very long time and "The Parable of the Wizard", "The Walking of the Virgin by Flour", "The Tale of Ersh Yershovich" and others. The influence of these stories was very great, because they showed the truth of life and allowed people to see a different point of view, different from the church.
The first professional satirical writersappeared in the XVIII century. AP Sumarokov, AD Kantemir created works in the manner and style of the ancient Greek authors. Truly Russian satire began its ascent with the fables of IA Krylov and the play of D. I. Fonvizin "The Minor." The last work literally blew up the Russian society, up to this point no one has tried to ridicule representatives of the nobility so sharply. The popularity of this genre becomes extraordinary, dozens of weekly magazines appear, in which pages are printed pamphlets, fables, comedies, epigrams, revealing this or that side of reality.
Satirists of the XIX century
With the beginning of the golden age of Russian satire literaturegets a new development. Laughter becomes a truly formidable weapon, directed not only at the vices of individuals or classes of society, but on the state and the emperor. The genre of the feuilleton prevails, but the comedy also receives a special sound. NV Gogol's play The Inspector General received tremendous popularity from the people and fierce indignation among the authorities.
Writers-satirists of the XIX century were forcedconstantly be under the close supervision of the country's leadership. The emperor and his ministers felt the power of laughter and the way people trusted the authors, because they feared them, arrested, exiled and repaired constant obstacles in literary activity.
And as time showed, this fear was notgroundless, satire and other directions of literature for several decades formed the consciousness of Russian people, showed them the real state of affairs and called for struggle for another life. What was worth the work of Nekrasov "Who in Russia live well", it is still called a direct appeal for revolution.
A huge role in the formation and development of thisgenre in our country was played by the writer-satirist Saltykov-Shchedrin. Critics called his work a chronology of the events of the Russian Empire of the XIX century. All the most important reforms and reforms in the state were reflected in his works. The writer observed the shredding of people and morals in the highest structures of power, the dominance of corruption and nepotism, which could not but provoke a man of protest and resentment.
Satire in books Saltykov-Shchedrin acquiredespecially cruel, punitive value. The images of two stupid generals or a governor with an empty head became part of Russian culture, are relevant even now, 200 years later.
The Satire of the 20th Century
The new century brought new, unusualartistic and moral ideals. In our country, first broke the political structure, then public and literary. Writers-satirists of the country's councils worked under harsh conditions of censorship and fear for their lives. In the first half of the century, free humorous magazines were still operating, but gradually they also became predictable in themes and exposed mostly bourgeois ideals of life.
This period is associated with the emergence of satiricalworks by Ilf and Petrov "Twelve Chairs" and "The Golden Calf". The new and old world was vividly reflected in the images of the swindler Ostap Bender and the former nobleman Ippolit Vorobyaninov. If these novels were written a little later, they would hardly have seen the light, so strong was the pressure on free creativity. A striking example of this - M. Bulgakov, censorship pursued his whole life, and one of his main creations - "The Heart of a Dog" - saw the light only after the death of the author.
Modern reality establishesabsolutely different laws of the formation of humor. First of all, the way information was changed, paper is now not the best way to tell about your vision of the world. Now, communication with people takes place on TV or directly at concerts. Yes, and the format of the very arbitrariness has become more capacious, specific and targeted.
But the role of the writer-satirist in the society remainedthe former - to ridicule the vices of society and proclaim true ideals. Today there is another problem - the volume of information and texts in this direction is simply huge, written and spoken by someone horrible and not always at a high level. Therefore, it is not so easy to find a really valuable observation among these garbage, worthy of being called a satire.
Mankind will never be perfect, notvices, evil or envy will disappear. It is already the choice of each person, on what path to him to go through life. But this choice is often formed under the influence of external factors: examples of parents, negative influence of friends, improper education, etc. Not everyone can see and notice negative inclinations, and in this case one simply has to meet a "mirror" that reflects would be separate traits of thought and behavior.
This is the role of the writer-satirist, hiscreativity allows you to see yourself in a distorted form. Nothing will whip so hard on conscience and self-esteem, like laughter, sharp criticism makes you think and reconsider the usual ideals.