Where is the salivary gland in humans
The characteristic secret that is secreted by the salivary glands into the oral cavity is called saliva. In humans, there are several such glands. Specifically, where the salivary glands are located in humans - photos and information - later in the article.
The paired large ones are located near the ears, under the jaws and under the tongue, while the small ones are located in the submucosal layer of the cheeks, lips, tongue and palate. According to the secretion they produce, they are divided into mixed, protein and mucous membranes.
Large salivary glands: where are, photo description
Salivary glands are divided into small and large pairs. The latter, in turn, are divided into:
- Submandibular. Located in the submandibular triangle. The shape is rounded, the size is like that of a walnut, the weight is about 15 g. Saliva is secreted through the excretory duct, rather thick, located at the bottom of the mouth. The secret of the gland contains serous fluid and mucus, the volume of which is more than half of all the saliva produced.
- Parotid.Where is the salivary gland in humans, can be seen in the photo presented later in the article. They are located under the skin in the parotid and chewing areas of the face, have a pinkish-gray color and irregular shape. In size they are the largest salivary glands with a mass of about 30 g. They are located near the facial nerve, therefore, in case of damage, facial expressions can be disturbed. The glands produce saliva, which is involved in the digestion of food and makes up one fifth of the volume of all saliva secreted.
- Sublingual. Where in humans is the salivary gland of this type? Their location is under the mucous membrane of the floor of the mouth on both sides of the tongue. The glands have an oval oblate shape. They are the smallest of the big steam rooms. The weight of one is only 5 g. The type of secretion is mucous. Mucus flows away through the large and several small ducts and makes up the twentieth part of all the saliva produced.
Small salivary glands: where they are, photo
In the oral cavity of the submucosal layer is about a thousand of the smallest salivary glands with a diameter of 2 mm, located in the tissues of the tongue, lips, cheeks, palate, under the tongue and between its muscles.From the small glands flow ducts, which is saliva and irrigates the entire oral mucosa.
There is also a common excretory duct.
The glands are called by their location:
And also according to the secret:
- mucous membranes;
Where are the salivary glands in the mouth that produce serous secretion? They settled in a number of linguistic. They synthesize saliva, saturated with protein substances. Palatine and some lingual glands belong to the mucous glands. The secret they produce contains mucus. Buccal, part of lingual, labial, molar secrete saliva of mixed composition.
Salivary gland function
Where the salivary glands are located in humans is described above. Their main functions are:
- Filtration. The blood plasma is filtered from the capillaries in the oral cavity into saliva. This process produces insulin-like protein and parotin for the growth of the epidermis and nerve cells. With this function, the hormone renin and kallikrein enters the body.
- Excretory. There is a withdrawal of metabolic products. With saliva and the entire oral mucosa, the removal of certain substances, including heavy metals.In the event of a malfunction of the kidneys, which are the main organ of excretion, the salivary glands are connected. Urea under the action of saliva turns into ammonia and the patient has an unpleasant smell from the mouth. And during a disruption of the liver, bile enters the saliva.
- Endocrine. A secretion of substances similar to hormones is produced. Under the influence of salivary enzymes in the mouth begins a chemical effect on food. Substances in saliva, like hormones, dissolve it, and the necessary components are absorbed into the mucous membrane. In addition, the level of calcium and phosphorus is stabilized, which is necessary for the restoration of tooth enamel and bone tissue.
- Exocrine. Mucous and protein components of saliva are produced. Thanks to the development of mucus, the oral surface is protected from drying out, the moist state promotes the rapid healing of wounds and cracks. The main component of saliva is mucin, which is of protein origin. It moisturizes and envelops food to deliver it to the esophagus. Fibrin, together with mucin, neutralizes excess acids and alkalis, prevents blood clotting.
Saliva and oral fluid
Where the salivary glands are located is described above.They secrete a secret in the oral cavity called saliva. Oral fluid or mixed saliva consists of secretions, microflora and products of its vital activity (food particles, epithelium, leukocytes). Oral fluid in its composition is viscous. During the day, an adult individual produces from one and a half to two liters of saliva. The rate of salivation depends on:
- conditions of the nervous system;
- food irritant;
- state of rest or activity.
In the composition of the secret water is more than 98%, and the rest is mineral organic compounds. There is fluoride in the oral fluid, numerous organic ingredients, and more than 60 different enzymes. It is the main source of calcium and phosphorus for tooth enamel.
The main function of the salivary gland (where it was, described above) is the synthesis of secretions that are mixed with microorganisms, their decay products, food debris and form a mixed saliva that participates in important processes for the individual's body. The main functions of saliva:
- Protective. Moisturizes the mucous membrane, protecting it from drying out, mechanical stress, cracks.Washing the mucous membrane, removes germs, food debris. Due to the content of enzymes, it has a bactericidal action. Neutralizes acids and alkalis, improves the recovery of the mucous membrane.
- Anticarious. Cleans interdental spaces and the surface of the teeth. Reduces the concentration of glucose in solid foods containing carbohydrates. Creates a film on the enamel of the teeth, preventing the effects of acids.
- Digestive. Helps to chew and swallow food. Participates in its initial processing.
- Mineralizing. Minerals (calcium and phosphorus) contained in saliva enter the tooth enamel, thereby protecting the teeth from caries. On the other hand, saliva prevents the removal of valuable components from enamel.
Useful products for the salivary glands
For high-quality work of the salivary glands (where they are, described above) it is desirable to eat the following products:
- Walnuts - contain many polyunsaturated acids, which contribute to the improvement of the glands, and juglon kills and slows the growth of pathogenic bacteria in saliva.
- Chicken eggs. They contain lutein, which has a beneficial effect on the normalization of the functions of the salivary glands.
- Dark chocolate - promotes increased salivation and dilates blood vessels.
- Carrots - nourishes the glands, improves their cleansing activity, supplies vitamin A.
- Sea kale The iodine contained in it contributes to the prevention of inflammatory processes in the glands.
- Chicken meat - feeds glands with proteins, vitamins of group B and selenium.
- Sea fish Acids contained in it, normalize the activity of the glands.
- Apples are fresh. Potassium and pectins in their composition cleans up the salivary glands.
- Chicory - helps to improve the metabolic processes in the glands and increases blood circulation.
- Rosehip red. Vitamin C, which is found in large quantities in the berries, improves the functioning of the glands.
- Salt - contributes to the retention of moisture in the body, which leads to destructive changes of cells in the glands.
- Products of long shelf life (carbonated drinks, smoked meats, sausages). The high content of chemicals in them can disrupt the process of salivation.
- Alcohol-containing beverages cause spasm of the ducts, in the glands there is stagnation of saliva.
Inflammation of the glands
Signs of inflammation of the salivary gland (where it is, described in detail above) are:
- enlarged gland sizes;
- hearing problems;
- pain at the root of the tongue;
- redness of the skin around the gland;
- pain when touched;
- purulent discharge;
- pain when swallowing;
- headache, responding in the temple, neck or neck;
- reduction of saliva secretion.
When inflammatory processes occur violations with the release of enzymes.
Treatment of inflammation
Salivary gland therapy (where it is, described above) includes:
- Cleansing the mouth with a cotton swab moistened with baking soda solution or potassium permanganate.
- Intramuscular administration of antibacterial agents.
- Use for therapeutic purposes of constant electric current.
- Surgery if conservative treatment does not give proper results.
This process affects the connective tissue and excretory ducts, exacerbations are replaced by remissions. At the onset of the disease, general weakness and malaise appear. The temperature can rise to 39 degrees. At the location of the gland occurs swelling and pain.Where in the mouth are the salivary glands, photos are presented in this article.In the area of inflammation, redness of the skin can be observed. Sometimes there are problems with the opening of the mouth. There is a drying up of the mucous and unpleasant sensations. In some cases, the disease is severe and then the patient is required to be hospitalized. During exacerbation, the use of antibacterial drugs and drugs to increase salivation is necessary. At the chronic stage of the pathology, a change in the structure of the gland occurs. It becomes dense and hilly, and salivation gradually decreases.
Causes of inflammation
Inflammation of the salivary glands (where they are described above) may occur due to:
- intoxication of the body;
- obstruction of the bypass channel with a foreign body or stone;
- infection in the body.
Exhaustion of the body, infection of a viral nature, intoxication of various origins or dehydration are the causes of the acute stage of inflammation. Salivary glands are subject to inflammation due to the causative agents of syphilis, tuberculosis, and parotitis virus. Microorganisms through the lymph or excretory ducts enter the gland, causing disease. In acute inflammation, the secretory function of the salivary gland is sharply reduced.The chronic phase of this process is often a complication of the acute form of the disease, but sometimes it also occurs as an independent disease.
Interesting facts about saliva
With constant drying in the mouth, a sensation of pain and swelling in the neck, problems with swallowing food, it can be assumed that a salivary stone has appeared. Where is the salivary gland in humans, photos can be found in the article. Saliva contains a large amount of calcium, sometimes it accumulates in the ducts, forming pale-colored crystalline rocks.The causes of this phenomenon are not fully understood. Scientists suggest that they lie in the lack of water in the body, poor diet or medicines. Most often, stones are formed in older men and can become impressive in size (more than 7 cm). The extraction procedure is painful, often after this there is inflammation and infection. Stones of small sizes are removed by sucking special candies that are sour to the taste. Acid causes excessive salivation, which contributes to the dissolution of the stone. For large sizes, drugs are used to dissolve the rock, or surgery.
Full work of the salivary glands is directly dependent on the health of the body as a whole. Problems associated with the disruption of the pancreas, kidneys, and liver significantly increase the load on the salivary glands. Abundant salivation may indicate the appearance of worms in the gastrointestinal tract. Its cleansing and compliance with the diet helps to restore the functions of the glands that have been impaired. Maintaining a tonus of the glands and their functioning contributes to the meticulous chewing of food.