What is the vanguard?

The word "avant-garde" has recently become veryfashionable, but not all really know what avant-garde is. Inadvertently not be in an awkward position, it is worth familiar with its detailed meaning.

Etymology and history

The concept of "avant-garde" is Frenchorigin and consists of two words, in the translation meaning "ahead" and "guard". Initially, it was used only in military affairs to designate the forward part of the army. Later, French revolutionaries turned to this term, and it gradually began to acquire a greater political meaning.

Avant-garde in the twentieth century

It is thanks to revolutionary activists, inIn particular, the founder of utopian socialism, Henri Saint-Simon, the avant-garde became popular in art. This historical personality in one of his articles, published in 1825, gave the role of avant-garde artist, capable and even obliged to propagate revolutionary ideas through his creative work. Since then, the word "avant-garde" began to be used and applied to art.

At the turn of the XIX and XX centuries arose the same namea direction in art that is distinguished by an experimental approach to the expression of views, an abundance of innovative techniques and techniques, a frequent reference to figurative symbolism. Avant-garde in art defies the classical canons, reinterprets traditional social and cultural values. At the same time, this movement consists of a huge number of different schools, many of which radically differ from one another on the basis of an accepted ideological basis.

Avant-gardism is aimed at finding new ways and forms inart, this is the direction of experiments. He has his own romanticism, he is clearly manifested in the idea of ​​the absolutization of creativity, in which the true reality is revealed. This shows the continuity of the avant-garde from the symbolism of modernity.

In the main avant-garde currents of the early 20th centurythere was a distraction of the form of art from its spiritual meaning, Thus was born a strong and unrestrained freedom of avant-gardism. Avangard is an absurdity, a discrepancy between the spiritual meaning of the reality of art and life. There is a new pragmatist, the substitution of values: artistic replaced by aesthetic, and aesthetic - speculative.

The avant-garde is authoritarian and aggressive.

In the visual arts, this directionis very closely connected with modernism, since its flowering is at the beginning of the twentieth century. It includes such currents as Cubism, systematism, expressionism, constructivism, primitivism, futurism, Dadaism and many others like them.

Avant-garde literature

Writers from different countries of the world are also excellenttook on new avant-garde ideas. First of all, the avant-garde found its expression in the work of such iconic writers as Franz Kafka and Rainer Maria Rilke. Among the Russian figures, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Velimir Khlebnikov, Alexander Kruchenykh, and Leonid Andreev's early works can be referred to this genre.

Mentioning the avant-garde, its meaning can not be forgotten andfor other spheres of art: theater, music (first of all, rock), cinematography. Since the 1970s. began to appear postavangard, neoavangard, transvangard.

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