What is the role of the military-industrial complex in the Russian economy? Characteristics of the military-industrial complex of Russia
To determine the role of the military-industrial complex in the Russian economy, it is necessary to understand the meaning of this concept. The first person to introduce the term MIC was the President of the United States of America, Dwight Eisenhower. By concept, he meant not only the scale of the manufacture of weapons and military goods, but also other structures supporting the power and fighting efficiency of the armed forces of the state.
The military-industrial complex in the modern Russian Federation can be - the term is more narrow. The military-industrial complex of Russia is a structure that includes production facilities, design bureaus, and research institutes that are directly involved in the production of military equipment, guns and shells.
Relationship of civil and military sectors
MIC enterprises are not only military objects. Factories and factories operating primarily in civil society also provide the army with everything they need. This is a light, food, woodworking, chemical industry. One of the key auxiliary sectors for the military-industrial complex is mechanical engineering. This is the release of transport, and devices, and equipment for other industries. These branches of the military-industrial complex, while not leading in the military industry of the state, but ensure the integrity and performance of defense facilities.
There is also feedback. Features of the military-industrial complex of Russia do not end with the work of civilian enterprises for the country's army. It so happened that in the absence of special orders, the plants of the complex are engaged in the release of household goods. This is mainly home appliances.
Composition of the military industrial complex of Russia
The structure of the military-industrial complex of Russia includes the following components:
- research institutes that develop the theory and design research;
- design bureaus whose employees are responsible for creating prototypes, prototypes of real weapons;
- experimental laboratories, bases, test sites and airfields, where tests of technical means and their elements are carried out before launching into mass production;
- production capacity: plants and enterprises producing objects of the defense industry;
- consulting firms that help solve commercial, marketing, legal, financial and foreign economic issues.
Formations of the military-industrial complex of Russia
The military-industrial complex of Russia was formed at the stage of industrialization in the Soviet Union. To the production of objects of the defense industry began to impose increased ergonomic and strength requirements. According to the requirements of the government, the weapon should be as simple as possible so that any soldier without special skills could use it.
In the defense industry, highly skilled workers were highly valued, therefore wages and social incentives were an order of magnitude higher among workers in this industry.
To understand the role of the military-industrial complex in the Russian economy, it is necessary to estimate the number of people employed in this field. At the time of the restructuring on the defense sector of the state employed about five million people.This is twenty-five percent of all employees in industrial production. Scientific personnel made up the fifth part of all specialists.
The role of the MIC for society
All the development of the MIC are funded by the population of the country. At the same time, not all products manufactured by defense enterprises are needed only for the conduct of hostilities. The country, first of all, should show the power of its army to others. Weapons in this case acts as a deterrent.
One of the main prerequisites for the development of the military-industrial complex is the doctrine. This regulatory document establishes the goals and objectives of defense, defines its role in the international arena, opportunities, and threats from potential adversaries.
The military-industrial complex of Russia has always been distinguished by the release of a large number of various weapons. In Soviet times, the country made objects of the defense industry many times more than all potential adversaries combined.
The design and production of military equipment helps to introduce new progressive methods in other industries.Based on the developments of the defense sector, modern vehicles, ships, airplanes, communications equipment and computing devices are produced. And this is only because for the defense sector they do not have sufficient capacity.
The branches of the military-industrial complex of the Russian Federation include a set of production and research facilities that provide the army with everything necessary. The military-industrial complex, in addition to the production of facilities, is also characterized by the governing, managerial apparatus.
It is in this sector that the most qualified personnel work and the best achievements of science are collected. This is due to the fact that the military industrial complex produces sophisticated technology.
MIC enterprises are evenly distributed throughout the territory of the Russian Federation. In each region there is at least one link entering the defense industry. But depending on the conditions required, different industries are based in different places.
In large cities there are high-tech, difficult to implement, requiring skilled personnel facilities.In the first place is the capital - Moscow, important points for the military-industrial production are St. Petersburg and Novosibirsk.
A feature of the geography of elements of the defense sector is the creation of closed towns. Previously, they were listed under the assigned numbers, and only now received the name. In such localities, it is easy to ensure secrecy, which is necessary to preserve industrial secrets and technologies. In closed cities, as a rule, the social level is much higher.
The location of industrial facilities was influenced by geographical, strategic and other factors that determine the convenience of the location. For example, the development of nuclear warheads occurs in the most remote corners of the country, and military shipbuilding is developed in places with the presence of water areas. The latter include the cities of Taganrog, Severodvinsk, Komsomolsk-on-Amur. The center for the manufacture of small arms is Tula, and the artillery is the Urals. Space objects are based in places remote from populated areas.
Factors affecting the placement of objects of the aviation industry are:
- the ability to assemble the finished product from parts and assemblies;
- the presence of highly professional specialists;
- convenient transportation.
Mostly all design offices are located in Moscow and Moscow region. The only design bureau that develops the design and technology of an amphibious aircraft is located in Taganrog.
Basically, the capital is the center of the aviation industry. Here the companies that produce aircraft of world famous brands - "Yak", "Il", "Tu", "Su" and others carry out their work. In the Moscow region are engaged in the production of individual parts of aircraft.
The location of the largest aviation facilities is not only Moscow, but also Smolensk, Voronezh, Kazan, Samara, Saratov, Omsk, Irkutsk.
Rocket and space industry
Modern military-industrial complex of Russia can not be imagined without the rocket and space industry, which is the most high-tech, expensive and difficult to perform. The base for research and development of technologies is the capital and adjacent territories. This is due to the fact that there is access to highly qualified personnel. It is in Moscow that specialists are engaged in the development of ballistic, cruise, anti-aircraft missiles and engines.
For the purpose of security and secrecy, enterprises in the rocket and space industry are not located in close proximity to state borders.
The main spaceport of the country is located in the Arkhangelsk region. It is from him launch military artificial satellites and unmanned aerial vehicles. To support this industry in the framework of international cooperation, the Russian Federation leases the Baikonur cosmodrome from Kazakhstan.
Artillery and shooting complex
The importance of the military-industrial complex in the Russian economy cannot be overestimated. Thanks to the release of unique products, the defense industry brings a good income to the country's budget. One of the clearest examples is the small arms, namely the Kalashnikov assault rifle. He is known around the world and is the most widespread type of weapon.
Enterprises engaged in the manufacture of artillery and small arms, are located near steel mills. This is economically due to the decrease in the number of commodity transport operations.
The center of the production of artillery installations is rightfully considered to be the Urals.It is in Yekaterinburg and Perm that they make multiple launch rocket systems “Grad”, “Smerch”, “Uragan”, cannons, howitzers, mortars, anti-aircraft and anti-tank missiles.
The influence of the military-industrial complex on the Russian economy may not be positive. For example, the armored industry is currently in a period of deep crisis. The authorities are trying to reorient and repurpose the objects of this complex. Stability in the work differs only plant for the production of armored personnel carriers in Kurgan. Many of the production of this industry is currently engaged in booking cars.
It is impossible to estimate the role of the military-industrial complex in the Russian economy without characterizing the shipbuilding complex. Thanks to this branch of the military-industrial sector, construction companies are always provided with jobs. Most of the enterprises engaged in the manufacture of warships are based in the central part of the Russian Federation. This is necessary to increase the level of protection of such objects.
The release of submarines is now practically not carried out.The objects of the shipbuilding defense complex are located in the northern capital of the state - St. Petersburg. In addition to it, the centers of production of ships are Nizhny Novgorod, Severodvinsk, Kaliningrad and Komsomolsk-on-Amur.
For enterprises in this sector is characterized by a narrow focus and a monopolized market. Naval shipbuilding is one of the first sectors to suffer from the economic crisis.
This sector consists of two parts:
- nuclear power;
- nuclear weapons complex.
The nuclear industry is most often secret objects located in closed military camps. The main goal of their work is to protect the atomic space and the security of the Russian Federation. Previously, these were bases equipped with everything necessary. The people who lived on their territory, although they were limited in their actions, but had a better standard of living.
Now the demand for nuclear products has fallen, so enterprises are no longer so classified. They begin to expand the range of manufactured goods, surprising with its versatility. Many objects of the nuclear industry are engaged in the dismantling and elimination of nuclear weapons.
The uranium industry plays a key role in the entire military-industrial complex. This sector includes:
- the extraction of this natural mineral;
The main uranium deposits are located in the Irkutsk region.
In order to understand what is the role of the military-industrial complex in the Russian economy, it is necessary to analyze separately each industry within it, because all sectors have their own characteristics and direction. For this reason, the production of some objects replenishes the country's budget with quite good sums, while others require additional financing. The defense sector provides jobs for millions of Russian citizens, is the engine of progress and helps to bring the country's economy out of the financial crisis. Thanks to the achievements of the military sector, the development of other spheres of society is taking place.