What is lexicology?
Linguistics, as the science of language, has several sections. Lexicology is one of them.
What is lexicology? This is the section of language science, which studies the vocabulary of the language, its vocabulary. This name originated from two Greek roots: lexis - “word” and logos - “teaching”.
The object of lexicology is the word as the main unit of the language.
The subject of lexicology is the word, its meaning, origin, sphere of use.
The lexical meaning of the word is divided into:
- unambiguous (jug, starling) and polysemantic words (a pen is a piece of furniture and a device for writing);
- idioms, that is, stable combinations: "headlong," "slipshod";
- synonyms - similar words (big - huge);
- antonyms - opposite words (big - small);
- homonyms - words that are the same in spelling and pronunciation, but different in meaning (maiden spit and scythe as an instrument of labor).
Origin of words
Depending on the place of origin of the word is divided into:
- native Russians (head, table);
- foreign language (gift, market);
- Neologisms - new words (computer).
Scope of use of words
The sphere of the use of words is also important. In this regard, they are divided into:
- commonly used (sky, do, merry);
- obsolete, that is, obsolete, replaced by new words (eyes - eyes);
- historicism - denote objects and phenomena that have disappeared from the lives of people (the king, the jackboots);
- conversational (rush, laugh);
- dialect, i.e. used in a specific area (time - good weather);
- professional (scalpel, balance);
- jargon, characteristic of certain groups of people connected by common interests, for example, youth, thieves' jargon (dark - that is, to hide something).