What are chromosomes?

Galina Mirzahmedova
Galina Mirzahmedova
January 25, 2015
What are chromosomes?

Some people wonder what chromosomes are. Chromosomes are structures of high condensation of an extremely long DNA strand in eukaryotic cells (all living organisms except bacteria and viruses). Chromosomes carry genetic information, determine the hereditary properties of organisms.

In the chromosome, functional areas such as telomeres (shoulders of the chromosome) and centromeres are isolated. There are also replication initiation points (ORI points) on the chromosomes, from which the reading of genetic information by proteins begins. Depending on the length of the chromosome arms and the location of the centromere, acrocentric (centromere at the end), submetacentric (telomeres not equal in length), metacentric (centromere divides the chromosome into almost equal shoulders) chromosomes are isolated.

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