Types of stairs: design features, installation technology and reviews
When it comes to interfloor staircases in private homes, most have a unique aesthetics of such products before their eyes. In this case, it does not even occur to me to call such a construction a method of communication between floors. Such a structure is more likely to be a significant element of the interior, which symbolizes a respectable life and decorates the home decoration.
Curved handrails and wrought iron fences, as well as fancy carvings on balusters can look very impressive. Regardless of whether the material is based on wood or steel, such designs can be complemented with unique patterns and patterns, as well as stunning shades of colors. The manufacture of any ladder involves the need for engineering calculations, because the design will bear a certain load, so it is extremely important to think about what will be the angle of inclination, configuration, and location in space.In the interiors today you can find different types of the described structures, which will be discussed below.
Variety of stairs by material
Considering the types of stairs, you can classify them according to various criteria, among which - and the material at the base. Such designs are:
- made from a combination of materials.
For example, a metal staircase with wooden steps can be decorated with a forged pattern and wooden balusters. Steps can have a variety of sizes and shapes. This is especially true when designing a swivel structure. But all such systems provide for the presence of bearing and additional elements. The former are the main ones, while the latter are decorative.
Among the main nodes should be highlighted:
- support columns;
But the decorative function is:
- decorative console.
If, when considering the types of stairs you decide to prefer a complex configuration of the structure, then you should be ready for inconvenience in everyday life. After all, to raise up bulky furniture in this case will be quite problematic. You should not neglect safety - you should not save on fences.Balusters should not be too far apart. Security can be ensured if the distance between these elements is 15 cm or less.
Variety of stairs according to the method of construction
Ladders can be classified according to another principle - the method of construction. Based on this, the designs can be:
Design features: flight stairs
Marching stairs have a fairly simple structure, which consists of separate marches. Such systems can be swivel or straight. Monolithic construction with straight marches is usually made from a combination of materials. Steps, balusters and railings will be made of wood, while the base - of concrete.
Features cantilever stairs
The console view of the stairs is more complex structurally and is located along the wall. Massive handrails are absent here, and the visible support creates the impression of a system hanging in the air. But in fact, wooden steps are attached by anchors to the bearing wall, which guarantees durability as well as stability.It is noteworthy that when installing such a ladder after repair, replacement of the floor covering is not required, which can be called a significant advantage.
Features spiral staircase
The spiral staircase is not the most convenient to use, but suitable for those rooms that are characterized by a shortage of free space. Performing a combined design, you will install a helical, straight and curved marches.
Features ridge design
The spinal view of the ladder received such a name because of the similarity with the ridge. This design consists of individual elements that are connected by successive inserts. The use of such a system allows you to alternate the planning decisions, which makes it possible to get a ladder of any geometry.
Among the planning decisions are the following types of stairs:
- with zabezhny steps;
- straight lines.
The shape of the fence repeats the design of the ladder itself, which implies the need to use flexible handrails. The manufacture of such a system costs 2 times more expensive than the classic version.
Additional features of the screw design. Reviews
Considering the views of the stairs to the attic, you can pay attention to the spiral structure, which is suitable for those rooms where there is little space for a direct system. Calculate the size of the space is quite simple. This will depend on the size of the steps. The length of each is usually from 50 to 100 cm.
Space will need a minimum. According to consumers, such designs are not very convenient, but they help if necessary to install an auxiliary lifting system. Typically, these stairs are installed for basements and attics, and their shape may be very different:
However, this list is not complete. According to home craftsmen, such systems are usually made of metal or wood. Steps have the form of wedges and are attached to a pole or stand. The latter is usually made of metal and has the appearance of a pipe. The wide part of the step is in contact with the balusters or the wall.
There are usually no risers in this case. If you still do not know which type of ladder you prefer, you can take a closer look at the screw type. According to users, for a safe and convenient lifting, the central width of the steps should not be less than 25 cm. The widest part should be 40 cm.
The material for the manufacture of such a ladder is metal, but quite often you can find wood at the base. Such structures are usually located at the bearing wall or in the central part of the room, as they do not take up much space. However, according to home craftsmen, such systems are used less often than others.
Reviews of the flight of stairs and more about their design features
Such designs are the most popular, because for them it is convenient to climb and descend. This is due to the fact that the biomechanics of movements is taken into account. Such systems occupy a lot of space in the premises, and the dimensions are calculated by determining the height of the wall where the structure will pass.
It is also important to determine the length of the floor. Afterwards, consumers are advised to draw a right-angled triangle, where the floor and the wall are the paths, and the stairs are the hypotenuse. The ideal angle for it, according to home craftsmen, is 45 °. This allows you to calculate the size and determine the possibility of installation in a particular room.
The width will depend on the wishes of the owner of the house. Considering the types of stairs to the second floor in a private house, you should pay attention to the most convenient type of such constructions - the flight. Each march should have from 3 to 15 steps.If this rule is not observed, then it will be difficult to climb. The flight of stairs usually has 10-11 steps. When the design is made longer, then set the intervals in the form of platforms. Their width, in the words of home masters, should be equal to the width of the march. However, this value can be done a little more.
Types of wooden mid-flight ladders
Considering the types of wooden stairs on the basis of marches, you can pay attention to the designs, which are classified according to several characteristics. Thus, such systems may be open or closed. The latter provide for the presence of steps with risers, but open marching stairs do not have risers.
It is possible to distinguish such systems by design features. There are ladders with kosoura or bowstrings. Oblique view of the stairs in the house to the second floor provides for the placement of steps when they are laid on the saddle. Steps are stacked on top of the kosouurnuyu beam, with risers fixed from the end. The beam is U-shaped. These stairs are not as common as tetivny, they look attractive, if made of wood.
Bowstrings that are bearing beams, run along the length of the marches and are the main part. Overall tetivnaya ladders have a width that reaches 2 m and more. The string closes the end fragment. Here the steps are fixed in wide gaps located inside the bearing beams. The thickness of the latter should exceed 6 cm.
Designs can be classified also on:
The number of the latter depends on the floors and layout, as well as the purpose of the room. Conventionally, structures are also divided into straight and turning. The first are the most simple, they are durable, comfortable and easy to manufacture. If there are more than 10 steps, the march is divided into two parts, and the system is complemented by a platform. To save space, the gaps are replaced by steps, which are called overpass. In this case, the staircase has a wider outer edge.
Marching Ladder Mounting Technology: Tool Materials Preparation
Considering the types of stairs in a private house, you can choose the most common option - a march design. It can be made of wood, which allows to achieve environmental friendliness, high strength, as well as affordable cost.In addition, this material is quite easy to process.
Sometimes pine is used for production, but it should be checked for knots. Under the influence of temperature, the structure may be deformed, and the knots will fall out, which will entail a weakening of the structure. Starting to manufacture, the wood should be dried and treated with substances to impart resistance to fungus, mold and moisture.
To perform the work should be prepared:
- carrying bar;
- edged board;
- carpenter's glue.
Among other things, you should take care of the presence of a screwdriver, drill, drill, electric jigsaw and hacksaw. It is important to purchase or find in your workshop:
- drill set
Kosour is made of wooden beams, the length of which is equal to the flight of stairs. The thickness of the support should not be less than 50 mm. Before sawing the beam, a template should be made, which can be a piece of plywood. The design provides for the presence of supporting elements.
Steps will be fixed on the teeth of the kosour beams. At the next stage, you can begin to mount beams kosur.It is necessary to begin these works with fixation in the upper part of the kosour, so that from the bottom it is possible to eliminate errors. One of the kosour is fixed to the ceiling beam and the support pole. The latter is fixed with anchor bolts if the floor repair work has not yet been completed.
Performing a marching view of the stairs in the house, you must arrange a support for the kosour, which will be located near the wall. To do this, use the props of the bar. With it, perform the base under the rotary stage. In the support bar should be cut out the end for the installation of rotary stages. Works are controlled by the construction level.
Manual Fire Escape
Considering the types of manual fire escapes, you should highlight:
- assault ladder;
- stick ladder;
- retractable three-knee ladder.
Manual designs are used for lifting to the upper floors during rescue operations. They are operated manually without the use of a source of mechanical energy. Such systems are made of rolled aluminum and wood. Ladders are simple structurally and convenient in work. They are included in the set of equipment of fire trucks that deliver them to the site.
Metal structures and their types
Types of metal stairs include designs:
- on two kosour;
- on the same track;
- on string;
- on the Bolzah;
As for the systems on two kosourah, in them the carrier beam is located under the steps. This type of staircase to the second floor is the most popular among metal structures. If we are talking about a system on one skor, then in front of you is a powerful metal beam, on which the steps located in the middle of the structure are fixed, the main load is placed on them.
Private houses are not only one-story. In this case, one cannot do without a ladder, which has become not only an ally of comfortable living, but also an indicator of the respectability of the owners. Before choosing a system, you should consider all available types of stairs. Variants and features of the structures presented above. They all have their advantages and disadvantages. For example, a spiral staircase is not very convenient in operation, so it is often installed to climb to the attic or descend to the basement.