The problem of knowledge in philosophy: the main aspects in their cultural and historical development
The problem of knowledge in the history of philosophy occupies a special place. Strictly speaking, the very knowledge of the surrounding reality by a man began to be considered and analyzed by our ancestors long before the moment when philosophy received its scientific substantiation. Even within the framework of the ordinary and mythological worldviews, a person tried to understand how the formation of his ideas and judgments about himself and all that surrounds him takes place. However, it was within the framework of philosophy that the problem of knowledge acquired a truly scientific sound.
The problem of knowledge in philosophy, to which, by the way, a whole section of this science (gnoseology) is devoted, has several aspects at once. First, the definition of this concept. As with many other phenomena and processes in this scientific discipline, there is no unanimous opinion among scholars about what should be considered knowledge.Most often, this term refers to the process of mastering information about a person, society and the outside world, the ultimate goal of which is truth. Secondly, the problem of knowledge in philosophy implies an analysis of the structure of this process. From the most ancient times, scientists have identified such varieties of human cognitive activity as sensual, mundane, rational and scientific knowledge.In addition, some philosophers, seeking to show that this phenomenon is more diverse in nature, emit also intuitive and artistic knowledge. The next important component of the problem of knowledge in philosophy is to consider this process as a system, as a single mechanism, each detail of which performs a specific, unique to it function. From this point of view, knowledge is not simply a list of certain facts obtained through experimental and logical means, but a complex of interrelated elements that act as social memory, within which the information received is passed on from generation to generation. Finally, the problem of knowledge in philosophy is unthinkable without its theoretical understanding.The theory of knowledge is the most important component of epistemology, which includes, on the one hand, the basic concepts relating to different approaches to this problem, and on the other, criticism of these concepts, in which scientists consider certain theories from the point of view of newly emerging facts and open laws and patterns.
Objects of study
The theory of knowledge has as its object of research such concepts as cognition itself and its main manifestations, the problem of the world being knowable, the relationship between the object and the subject of cognition, and also how well the knowledge obtained corresponds to the real state of things. In addition, the basic prerequisites that have a direct impact on the educational process, as well as the basic forms and methods of cognition, are being studied.
Thus, the problem of knowledge in philosophy has a long and rich history. The main aspects of this process considered within the framework of this science are constantly being filled with new content and acquire a new form.