Soviet industrial crawler tractor T-100: technical specifications, manufacturer
The domestic tractor T-100 was produced in Soviet times by the Chelyabinsk plant. This is one of the many options that the company has manufactured over a long history. The machine is equipped with tracks, has several modifications, is adapted to work on difficult soils and in problem climatic regions. Consider the features and characteristics of this technology, which became a real legend during the construction of large-scale projects in industry and other industries.
History of creation
Initially, the Soviet tractor of the brand in question was named after Stalin. In the sixties of the last century, he underwent a radical modernization. Models under the designation 108 went into mass production, and in 1964, the production of the famous “weave” began, which after several years was awarded the main prize at an international exhibition.
Industrial tracked vehicles are focused on the construction and manufacturing sector. According to the project, it is a bulldozer with a cable-operated dump. Later it was planned to accommodate various replaceable attachments. In total, almost a dozen types of special machines were produced on the basis of the unit in question. The T-100 tractor belongs to the traction category 10. This class is determined by the limiting force that under certain circumstances can develop a device on a track.
Technical plan parameters
The considered technique has a mass of eleven tons, equipped with a more productive motor than the predecessor. The 15.5-liter diesel power unit has a capacity of 108 horse power. The maximum speed of the installation is 1070 rotations per minute. With a fuel tank capacity of 240 liters, the T-100 tractor consumes about 20 liters of fuel per hour.
The rated traction force of the machine reaches six tons per second at a speed of around five kilometers per hour. The indicators correspond to the high class of agricultural technology of those times.The upgraded versions had similar parameters at a nominal force of 9.5 t / s and a speed of 2.5 km / h. With a change in the rate of movement, the maximum indicator of thrust, which could reach up to 10 km / h in fifth gear, also changed.
The tractor engine is known under the symbol D-108. It is equipped with four cylinders, the same number of work cycles and has a weight of over two tons. The working chamber, where the fuel-air mixture is mixed, is located in the piston bottom. The unit is equipped with oil scraper and compression rings, in the cylinder head there are nozzles with bronze bushings. The updated version has five spray holes, and the oil filter is equipped with a centrifuge.
By and large, the "weaving" tractor became the first industrial unit, which was equipped with a starting motor. In winter, the P-23 installation with an electric starter helped activate the engine. Another advantage in the part of the power plant is considered a vacuum device, which operates on the energy of the exhaust emissions. With it, it was available to fill tanks located below the level of the fuel tank.
This unit is made in the traditional style, the clutch is easily dismantled. The dry single-disk unit is controlled from the operator’s cabin using a special lever with a cam mechanism. The gearbox is equipped with reverse and mechanics with five forward ranges and four speeds when driving backwards.
According to the structure, the gearbox is a centrally located element of a cone-shaped form, equipped with a driven gear on the flange and passing into the lower shaft of the box in one piece with the transmission.
In addition, the T-100 tractor is equipped with dry multi-disc swivel couplings, friction linings and special levers. The speed of movement of equipment, depending on the direction of movement and active transmission, varies from two to ten kilometers per hour.
Cab equipment and dimensions
For its time, the Soviet tractor under consideration had a fairly comfortable workplace. The cab was mounted behind the power unit on the frame of a rigid type. The operator is provided with a soft seat, lighting and a node of forced ventilation.The equipment was a direct competition to domestic and foreign counterparts, which were used in the construction of the Baikal-Amur Mainline and in the implementation of other important large-scale projects.
Industrial unit dimensions:
- length / width / height - 4300/2500/3100 millimeters;
- clearance is 30 centimeters;
- bearing surface of the caterpillar in length - 2400 mm;
- specific intensity - 103 kg / l. from;
- T-100 tractor weight - 11,1 tons.
The considered equipment of the Soviet production has an advantage over the wheel counterparts due to the best maneuverability on soft soils. The specific indicator of "weave" is 4.6 N / kV. cm (pressure on the ground). It can be noted that the design of the T-100 is more difficult in terms of design of the chassis, but more profitable in other respects.
This unit consists of semi-rigid tracked carts equipped with balancing devices. The tracks were made in the form of a box-type welded frame, interconnected by means of sleeves and fingers. Also, the “hodovka” was equipped with shoes with a special profile, a chain with a tension mechanism, as well as support and safety rollers.Suspension balance type is made in the form of a plate with springs.
One of the alleged industries where the T-100 tracked tractor could be used was agriculture. But in this area, its operation has not received much distribution. This is due to low speed performance. For example, the MGS model was equipped with a universal hydraulic system and a rear assembly for attachments. The variation of IGU-1 did not have such capabilities.
Also available with a winch version and a power take-off shaft. If we compare this technique with the agrarian analogue T-25, it can be noted that this agricultural tractor could change the amount of ground clearance and had a high-speed mode from 5 to 22 kilometers per hour.
More details about the modifications
In the first production models, the T-100 tractor, the characteristics of which are discussed above, was associated with the DZ-53 bulldozer having a rope dump. After the modernization, the technology was named DZ-54 and the possibility of using more than a dozen types of attachments used in construction, industry and road construction (from stump grinder to the liquidator of stones).
According to experts and users, this Soviet industrial machine was notable for reliability and practicality, along with low speed parameters. Modification of the T-100 MGP was equipped with hydraulics, front hinged system, rigid coupling device. In addition, installation of devices for activating the power take-off shaft, as well as the rear mounted unit, is provided.
Models T-100B and T-100 BG were produced as "swamp", had a wider section of caterpillars. The MGP-1 version was made in the light version and was notable for the lack of a cabin. The label "T" in some modifications indicated that the unit is adapted to perform the functions of the pipelayer. Later models of "weave" are known under the indices T-130 and T-100 MZGP. They had a hydraulic system with servo elements, as well as control of turns. Currently, this is the only version of the series under consideration that can still be found in the work.
The T-100 tractor, whose engine weighed more than two tons, is known in the Soviet era as a reliable, powerful and easy-to-maintain vehicle. Despite the low speed and maneuverability, the car was popular in various industrial and road sites.The fact that the name “weaving” has come to denote a number of modifications, including the T-10, T-130, and T-170 models, is in favor of this technique. The tractor, in comparison with modern analogs, differs in small comfort and difficult management. However, for its time, he was among the leaders, practically did not break and was distinguished by a high working resource of both the engine and the other elements.
The brainchild of the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant had time to visit all large-scale construction projects in the USSR, and was also widely used in the agricultural sector and industrial sectors. High permeability on any soil and the ability to work in different climatic regions are one of the most significant advantages of the T-100 tractor, which determined its popularity.