Reactive meningitis: what is a disease?
Jul 01, 2018
Infection, leading to inflammation of the spinal cord and brain, may be of different etiologies.But the most terrible, poorly studied and dangerous is the meningitis of the reactive form.This is a lightning-fast "killer", an ailment that develops transitory.If the disease is not diagnosed in the shortest possible time, the result will be a coma and the death of the patient.
- What is reactive meningitis?
- Causes of infection
- Symptomatic of reactive meningitis
- What are the treatment methods?
What is reactive meningitis?
Reactive or fulminant meningitis is the most dangerous form of the disease.If there is no necessary treatment within the first 24 hours after infection, then death occurs on the second day.In the case of infection with the child's virus, a fatal outcome occurs in a few hours.The disease very often does not give doctors time to diagnose and treat.
In the period of the development of the disease, aseptic inflammatory and autoimmune processes in the brain envelopes come first.
The following factors may provoke the development of reactive meningitis:
- back injury;
- furunculosis on the neck and face;
- inflammatory diseases of various organs, for example, pyelonephritis, carditis, pneumonia, otitis media of the middle ear, sinusitis, abscess;
- is a chronic disease.
Very often the disease affects the brain of premature babies.
The principle of development of the disease is a violation of the microcirculation of cerebrospinal fluid, characterized by cerebral edema and a decrease in discharge / absorption of this fluid.At the same time, intracranial pressure rises and hydrocephalus rapidly develops - hydrocephalus.Then the inflammation immediately spreads to the cranial and spinal nerves, as well as to the brain itself.
The disease is spread all over the world.It is most often found in African countries.
Source of infection is an infected person.Outbreaks of the disease occur mainly in the winter-spring period, when the temperature of the air often fluctuates, there is high humidity.
On the symptoms of meningitis, learn from the program Live Healthily.
Causes of infection with the disease
The following infections are the causative agents of reactive meningitis:
Sometimes it can be a fungal or viral infection.
Reactive meningitis is most often transmitted by the following pathways:
- Airborne - when coughing and sneezing;
- pin - head injury with infection;
- placental - from mother to child through the placenta;
- is hematogenous - the pathogen is entered into the brain;
- perineural - infection of brain tissue from inflammation of the nerves;
- is lymphatic - spreading through the lymph.
It happens that reactive meningitis develops on the background of craniocerebral or vertebral trauma.Sometimes pathogens penetrate the human body with contaminated food or when the rules of personal hygiene are not respected.For babies, the onset of this disease is associated with the development of pneumonia or tonsillitis.
The fastest spread of the disease through the body is the perineural process, when inflammation quickly passes from the inflamed nerves to the brain tissue.
According to WHO, every fifth patient with meningitis suffers from the reactive form of the disease.
Symptomatic of reactive meningitis
Among the main symptoms of the first clinical manifestations of reactive meningitis, the following symptoms are present:
- impaired consciousness and disorientation;
- fever, chills, temperature fluctuations;
- drowsiness, weakness and irritability;
- nausea, often turning into vomiting;
- heaviness in the limbs, "aching" in the body, pain in the muscles;
- headache, passing into the cervical and dorsal spine;
- pain in the throat;
- solidification of occiput and neck muscles;
- cardiac rhythm disturbance - arrhythmia;
- rashes on the body;
- manifestation of temporary deafness, paresis, paralysis;
- strain and swelling of fontanel in newborns.
When meningitis, the patient often takes a peculiar posture peculiar only to those who have fallen ill with this disease:
- Legs pressed to the stomach, bent at the knees;
- Head thrown to the back of the head.
This position a little relieves the headache, which can not be completely drowned even by medications.
Later, more dangerous symptoms appear:
- abdominal pain;
- increased pain in muscles with increased sounds, bright light;
- cramps in the calf muscles;
- auditory, visual and tactile sensitivity;
- increase in body temperature to 40 degrees;
- manifestation of apathy, with emerging tonic convulsions;
- change in blood composition;
- appearance of subcutaneous hemorrhage;
- staining the urine in a dark color.
In reactive meningitis, small blood clots occur, which often causes shock conditions.The main symptoms of shock include the following symptoms:
- increased blood pressure;
- tachycardia and angina pectoris;
- cold body surface at high temperature;
- appearance of ashy color of the skin at the feet and brushes.
In the first period, there may be anxiety, agitation, confusion.
All these symptoms develop from the moment of infection with reactive meningitis in the first day.If there are at least 3 signs of the disease, it is necessary to urgently consult a doctor in the first hours of the onset.This will prevent a fatal outcome.
What are the treatment methods?
In 90% of cases of timely contact with a doctor about the treatment of an illness the outcome is favorable.Diagnosis with lumbar puncture, analysis of cerebrospinal fluid allows you to correctly coordinate the actions of doctors and make decisions about the conduct of therapy.
After the treatment, some complications are possible:
- increase in blood clotting;
- septic shock.
When infected with reactive meningitis, every hour is valuable.To save the patient's life, intensive therapy should begin in the shortest possible time.
Usually doctors use treatment with the drugs of the following pharmacological groups:
- saline solutions;
- blood plasma substitutes;
- muscle relaxants;
If acute adrenal insufficiency is present, then glucocorticoids will be administered.Most patients with reactive meningitis undergo treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotic drugs: macrolides, penicillins, cephalosporins.
As a rule, many drugs are prescribed for intravenous use.If the condition worsens, drugs are injected into the spinal canal directly.To prevent cerebral edema, use Sorbilact and Furasemide.
It should be remembered that this disease can not be cured at home, and the lack of qualified medical treatment is fraught with a lethal outcome for the patient.You can use folk methods only after the patient bounces back when the danger is over.In such cases, use decoctions of lime and strong green tea with rose hips.
Before starting to use folk remedies, it is necessary to consult a doctor.
Reactive meningitis is a dangerous disease requiring compulsory qualified medical intervention and medical treatment.