Ischemic attack: what is it and how to get rid of it?
An ischemic attack (ICD-10: G45) is a pathological condition in which the cerebral circulation and blood supply to the retina of the eye is disturbed. When untimely resuscitation measures, a person develops an extensive stroke.
The main causes of this disorder are:
- The presence of atherosclerotic plaques that violate the supply of blood in large vessels.
- Disease of the cardiovascular system.
- The formation of blood clots.
- Chronic elevation of blood pressure.
- Osteochondrosis of the cervical segment.
- Hereditary predisposition.
- Atrial fibrillation.
- The presence of unhealthy habits.
- Age changes.
- Fabry disease.
When the first signs of loss of consciousness, a violation of communication, or paralysis of the limbs appear, a medical team must be called in immediately to provide the patient with first emergency medical care.
Once you figure out what it is - ischemic attack, it is easy to recognize the symptoms:
- Headache, dizziness.
- Nausea, vomiting.
- Cramps, fainting, lack of air.
- Muscle weakness.
- Disturbance of speech, confused consciousness.
- Double eyes.
- Decreased hearing.
- Loss of sensation
- Facial asymmetry.
- Darkening in the eyes.
- Unpleasant sensations in the chest.
- The appearance of black dots before the eyes.
- Loss of vision
On one side of the body, motor activity in the limbs is disturbed. These are the main symptoms that accompany the ischemic attack. Each specific person can only show certain “distress signals”.
Additional symptoms of ischemic attack (what it is - we found out above):
This signals an impending catastrophe, so you need to consult with a specialist.
At the first manifestations of ischemic disorder, you should immediately seek help from a specialist for a more detailed differential diagnosis of this disease from adjacent conditions. In order to make a diagnosis, the patient urgently needs to undergo the following types of research:
- Computed tomography.
- Ultrasound examination of large vessels of the brain and cervical spine.
- Analysis of blood parameters.
- Biochemical blood tests.
Due to the listed types of diagnostics, a specialist evaluates the degree of lesion of large vessels and the etiology of the disorder. After the examination, the patient is immediately hospitalized to provide emergency medical care to prevent the development of complications. If necessary, a person is carried out an operation to restore the walls of blood vessels.
Doctors using medications are trying to bring the patient’s bloodstream to a normal state. The most commonly used drugs, which include acetylsalicylic acid. If the ischemic attack has arisen due to the content of embolus in the blood, drugs with indirect anticoagulants are used. These drugs include "Phenindione" and "Acenocoumarol". Also, doctors prescribe a drip with a solution of glucose. If a patient has hypertension, antihypertensives are used to return blood pressure to normal. During ischemic attack, the patient may develop vomiting.To eliminate it, doctors prescribe the drug "Metoclopramide". In the treatment of ischemic attacks of the brain, drugs with diclofenac are used. Physiotherapy procedures are carried out in conjunction with medical treatment.
Consequences of ischemic attack
Note! Due to the fact that the ischemic attack of the brain is characterized by a short-term neurological deficit, followed by regress, there are no consequences for the patient to attack. However, the occurrence of cerebral ischemia itself is an important signal for the patient. It is necessary to undergo a series of laboratory and clinical studies to identify the cause of the attack and, if possible, to prevent the recurrence of the disease.
Predictions of Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
According to statistics, 10% of patients with TIA develop a stroke within 24 hours (in some patients - myocardial infarction); in 20% - within 3 months, in 30% - in the period of 5 years. There is a scale ABCD2, according to which it is possible to predict the risk of a stroke after the last TIA in the range of up to 90 days. The scale includes risk factors:
- the presence of diabetes;
- TIA symptoms.
A patient who fulfills the prescription of a doctor improves his prognosis, but no one will give him exact guarantees for this disease.
When ischemic attack is necessary to make prevention:
- Balanced diet. In this case, a person needs to limit the use of fried and fatty foods.
- It is necessary to maintain a normal pressure of 120 to 80. It is also necessary to take a hypotensive drug.
- It is necessary that the level of cholesterol in human blood always remains normal due to good nutrition. It is also necessary to lead an active lifestyle.
- Need to give up bad habits. If possible, sharply limit the use of alcohol and cigarettes. It is better if the person completely gives up cigarettes and reduces the use of alcoholic beverages.
- It is necessary to treat the pathological condition with a risk factor for TIA.