Introduction to the foundations of the social concept of the Russian Orthodox Church
One of the basic documents of modernThe Moscow Patriarchate of the Russian Orthodox Church is called the "Fundamentals of the Social Concept of the Russian Orthodox Church." In this vast document adopted by the Holy Council of Bishops, the main direction of the development of the church's relations with the state and society is determined, and the possibility of the church community's participation in solving acute problems existing in the society is pointed out.
The Social Concept of the Russian Orthodox Church
This basic document recognizes thatonly a mystical component of the church, but also its formal structure, developed in specific historical circumstances for several centuries.
Since the modern church is also apublic organization, and therefore forced to regularly enter into relations with other communities and state institutions, it is assumed that they should be regulated by the "Fundamentals of the Social Concept of the Russian Orthodox Church."
The document consists of sixteen chapters, each of which reveals the basic principles that indicate the position of the church on certain issues:
- Basic theological positions.
- Church and nation.
- Church and state.
- Christian ethics and civil law.
- Politics and the church.
- Labor and its fruits.
- War and Peace.
- Crime, punishment, correction.
- Questions of personal, social and family morality.
- Health issues of the individual and the people.
- Problems of bioethics and scientific research.
- Ecological problems.
- Vnesherkovnye science, culture, education.
- Church and secular media.
- Church in the system of international relations. Globalism and secularization.
Church, nation and state
In its relations with the state, the church proceedsfrom the fact that the state can not do without the control of society in the modern world that is corrupted by sin, and argues in the Fundamentals of the Social Concept of the Russian Orthodox Church that such a state of things is blessed by God.
At the same time, the church not only recognizesthe need to subjugate believers to the state, but also obliges members of the church to pray for the state and its rulers. It is separately pointed out that anarchy - anarchy - is an undesirable state for a Christian, and it should be avoided in every possible way, and the desire to establish such an order and appeals to it are a sin.
As for the relations between the church and the nation,Relations with her church builds, based on the image, gleaned from the Old Testament books, which describe the interaction of the people and God. Here it is worth recalling that the Old Testament Jewish state was a classical theocracy, which in modern conditions is impossible to imagine.
Labor and property in the "Fundamentals of the social concept"
In modern capitalist society, the question ofproperty is more acute than ever, and the church can not ignore the problems that arise in this regard. Of course, in an ideal relationship of a person and his property should be regulated by the evangelical principle of love for one's neighbor, which underlies any social relations.
At the heart of the church's relationship to property liesthe notion that all the benefits that a person has, belong to the Almighty, which means that people are only temporary users, as repeatedly reported in the Gospels.
At the same time, the "Fundamentals of the Social ConceptROC "indicate that a person, according to the Bible, should avoid the desire for excessive enrichment, because human life does not depend on the benefits that he has accumulated.
War and peace in the understanding of the ROC
In its relation to the war, Christianity proceeds fromrepresentations that it is the manifestation of one of the most terrible spiritual ailments of man - fratricidal hatred, and therefore, the attitude towards it can not be positive.
However, there are exceptions when the church can bless rulers for military action. Usually in such cases it is a matter of defending and protecting the nation, as well as helping the Christian community.
Moreover, in the "Fundamentals of the social concept of the RussianOrthodox Church "reported that the modern norms of international law that limit the use of violence in international politics would be impossible, do not affect them the spiritual leadership of Christianity.
Crime and punishment in the Christian sense
The problems of crime, redemption of guilt and forgiveness are fundamental for the Christian and could not be mentioned in the foundations of the social concept of the ROC.
Christianity encourages its followers to belaw-abiding citizens and to love your neighbor. But the church also recognizes that spiritual guidance is often not enough, and recognizes the need for government intervention, which is manifested in the creation of law enforcement bodies, to prevent crime.
However, it requires an attentive and humanattitudes towards people suspected of committing a crime. The main concept of the Russian Orthodox Church on this issue is that an aggressive and cruel attitude towards a suspect or a criminal will not help to correct it, but will only confirm it on this sinful path.
Orthodoxy and Law
For two thousand years of history, the church andthe state has developed a variety of ways of interaction, which ranged from full subordination of the secular ruler to the presenter until the church was deprived of even a minimal level of self-government, as it was in Peter's Russia, when the church was subordinate to the ruler of the country.
In today's world, each state hasown norms governing the boundaries of church self-government and the funding of church organizations. In some countries, Christian communities independently finance their activities, in some cases funding of church organizations through the system of state orders for the performance of socially important work.
However, in any case, all Europeancountries, except the Vatican, the church is separated from the state, and the secular nature of the European republics is not subject to revision, despite even a significant percentage of the Christian population in them.