How to plaster walls? How to plaster walls on lighthouses? How to plaster the walls with their own hands: complete instructions from the professionals
New progressive methods and nano-technologies that appear almost daily in production and in everyday life do not get tired to surprise both ordinary people and professionals. Take at least the same construction. In Soviet times, how could a foreman, perhaps with tears in his eyes knocking out the notorious plan of his employees, dream that there were not only special devices for plastering walls, but at least more or less acceptable finishing materials, not just sand and cement. Of course not. But it worked the same. We built houses, handed the keys to the apartments to the happy new settlers.And the plan was the same. And overfulfilled. True, the quality of work left much to be desired, but these are trifles. And therefore today, when there is a huge amount of various finishing materials, at times facilitating the work of the master, it is a sin not to take advantage of this. Houses are being built today, the same curves, still of Soviet times, remained the walls that the current owners would like to bring to mind. But you never know where finishing work is required. And they are oh so expensive if to invite professionals. That's why homemade craftsmen are increasingly thinking about how to learn how to plaster walls, whether it is possible to cope with this work independently, what materials are better for which surfaces. We will try to give an exhaustive answer to these and other questions in our review. And at the same time we will describe in detail how to plaster walls on beacons, what types of finishing materials are, how to properly prepare the surface and about many other things. We read, we educate, we learn. And plastering the walls with their own hands.
Since no one can plaster walls without at least rudimentary skills and basic knowledge of the process, let's begin, as they say, from the very beginning.By and large, there are only two finishing methods. This is a plaster, so to speak, in the plane, using a special device - the rules. And with exhibiting (necessarily under construction level) lighthouses. The first option is used in cases where the curvature of the surface is not too striking, and the defects and differences existing on it are not particularly significant. The second is used for finishing rough walls. Or so crooked that you can bring them to mind only by overlaying a thick layer of finishing material. It is much easier to work in the plane, but it is much more difficult with beacons. Therefore, before looking for an answer to the question of how to properly plaster walls, it is wise to evaluate the surface to be renewed. It may be possible to manage, so to speak, with a little blood.
The question "how to plaster walls" can not be answered unequivocally. Because this type of finishing work can be done in different ways and using different materials. In addition, the walls themselves, too, are not all and not always the same. They can be either internal or external. Both front and surfaces of utility rooms are subject to plaster. Agree, it is difficult to compare the walls of the pantry with those, say, in the living room or bedroom.In this regard, when we plaster the walls with our own hands, without having, quite understandably, the necessary professional skills, the following should be remembered. In non-residential premises that do not require additional decoration (the same wallpapering or cladding with ceramic tiles) - storerooms, garages, sheds, etc. - the usual method of plastering walls is used. In this form, the solution is applied only in two layers, as a rule, by the eye. With an improved finish plastering in three layers, in addition, the walls after the application and drying of the mortar should be puttyed. High-quality finish involves the use of lighthouses and expensive mixtures from famous brands.
In addition, anyone who has decided to thoroughly study how to plaster the walls correctly, should remember one more thing: do not confuse the usual finish with decorative. Venetian, flock, textured and other types of plaster are not intended to align the walls. This is the final stage of finishing work, followed by painting only.
It is quite clear that every beginner master has a logical question: “Is it better to plaster walls?” Today, few people prepare solutions on their own, because you can buy ready-made mixtures that you just need to dilute with water.The main thing is to choose them correctly. For example, cement-lime mixes are excellent for walls made of aerated concrete, brick, concrete. I make them from sand, lime, cement, and various additives that promote better adhesion of the mortar and improve its quality characteristics. There are also universal mixtures suitable for finishing any walls, both inside and outside. They are called cement-sandy, and what they consist of is clear from the name. Plus, of course, the same additives, without which, by the way, not a single mixture for finishing work can do today. The last type - gypsum plaster - the most popular. But these mixtures are the most expensive. But it is easy to work with them, and the quality of the finishing with gypsum solutions is always excellent. True, they dry out very quickly, in addition, they can not be used in rooms with high humidity. Therefore, for example, if there is a question “how to plaster the walls in a bathroom”, then the best answer to it will be the choice of a cement-sand mortar, which no water is terrible.
Asking about how to plaster the walls, you need to understand that without special tools you can’t do it.Therefore, every beginner finisher must certainly acquire the following materials and tools:
- Perforator and adapter with nozzle for mixing the solution. Plus, you will need a set of drills, better than the most popular - it is 6 mm.
- Dowels required sizes.
- Black screws. No need to take too short fasteners.
- Phillips screwdriver.
- Bubble level - two meters long.
- Scissors for metal or grinder (useful, if necessary, for cutting beacons).
- A hammer.
- Aluminum rule - 2 meters.
- Wide spatula - 15 cm.
- Steel ironer.
- Acrylic primer.
- Primer "Betonokontakt" (needed for the treatment of smooth or concrete walls).
- Wide brush or roller (in the latter case, it is desirable to have a bath for applying primer).
- Tape measure
- Gloves to protect your hands.
Since it is impossible to plaster walls without first preparing them, let's say a few words about this simple, but very important process. First of all, it is necessary to remove the old coating on it from the surface. First of all it concerns wallpaper, oil paint, whitewash.And you need to get rid of them very carefully, to the maximum. If you find on the wall impressive cracks or any other mechanical damage, then they need to be expanded, and then cleaned of the existing sand, primed and sealed with mortar. You also need to check the surface for internal defects, in particular, voids. Why do you need to tap a wall? The presence of a dull sound will be evidence that in this place the old plaster has poorly adhered to the base surface. It must be repulsed, and then also repaired. If the holes obtained after beating are very deep, then for better adhesion of the solution used to fill the defects, you need to put some kind of filler in them - foam, pieces of reinforcing mesh, etc. used finishing material.
A prerequisite - the surface before starting work must be very carefully primed. Under each finishing material has its own type of primer (information about this can be read on the package, which stores the mixture).If there is no opportunity to purchase exactly the one that the manufacturer recommends, take acrylic. Apply primer or roller, or brush. If there is a spray gun - even better. You can use it.
What to fear
Even high-class professionals, not like newbies, often have “bloopers”. What is to be feared when starting plastering walls, which defects are most often encountered and how to avoid them?
Shrinkage cracks are most often caused by the fact that the mortar used for work has dried out too quickly. Most often this happens when the room temperature is very high. Or there is a draft on it. Another reason for the appearance of such cracks is the application of a subsequent layer of the solution to the previous one that has not yet dried.
It also happens that in some places a new plaster begins to peel off. All this is due to the fact that there was a wrong (or carelessly) preliminary preparation of the walls. Let's say the base surface was either too dry or very dirty.
Sometimes on the newly finished walls in some areas the solution seems to swell. Cause? The original base surface was very damp.
Quite often, beginning masters are not very satisfied with their work, because the plastered surface turns out to be rough. Well, it was necessary to conscientiously perform the final procedure - the grout.
The occurrence of all the listed deficiencies may be due to another reason: the inconsistency of the material from which the walls were erected, and the solution used for decoration. But we will cover this issue in more detail below.
By and large, the process of plastering the walls is almost always the same. The only thing - there may be some nuances when using a finishing material having a different basis. As we said above, all solutions are usually prepared from gypsum or cement. Therefore, a few words about their features.
So, how to plaster the walls with gypsum plaster? Firstly, such mixtures are very rarely used for leveling walls, which are characterized by a large curvature. You can not call the plaster plaster bad. On the contrary, they are very good. But, as we have already mentioned, firstly, expensive ones, and secondly, they dry very quickly. In this regard, they are used most often only where, in order to obtain a high-quality final result, it is required to apply a small layer of finishing material.Due to the fact that the gypsum mortar dries quickly, it is ideal for embedding impressive local defects. As for the features of working with him, one thing to remember: you need to knead it quickly, and not very much. As much as it takes to process a section of the wall within an hour Naturally, you can not compare the speed of the professional and novice master. Therefore, knead the solution in small portions and quickly using a special mixer (the so-called nozzle for an electric drill). Spray the entire mixture at once with a small spatula and then level with a large (about forty or fifty centimeters long) surface. The first layer is aligned horizontally. If you need to impose another layer, then you should wait for the absolute drying of the first. The second is aligned vertically.
Modern cement solutions, due to the presence in them of various additives and modifiers, are very plastic, easy to work, do not freeze for a long time. How to plaster the walls with cement mortar? Yes, just like a plaster. The only difference is that cement mixtures do not dry so quickly, and therefore they are great for finishing large areas.In addition, if you need to apply the solution in several layers, you need to increase the exposure time (drying of the solution occurs within six or even eight hours).
When you, having practiced a little, understand that you already have enough hand, you can work with the help of the rule. First, throw the cement mixture on a large section of the wall, and then level it, following the rule from top to bottom.
One of the most sensitive issues. How to plaster the corners of the walls? Indeed, this can be a problem. Especially when you consider that the angles in our apartments are far from exemplary. In order to make them straight, you can use a little trick. You need to stock up on a good straight board, and its length should be the same as the height of the room. Then, using self-tapping screws, fasten it right into an angle perpendicular to the standing wall, stepping back from its edge, a distance equal to the thickness of the applied plaster layer. The procedure should be carried out using (this is a mandatory condition) level and plumb line. After the plastered surface dries, just fix the board on the already treated surface in order to bring the entire angle to mind.As for the outer corners, everything is much easier. For their finishing, a special metal perforated profile is sold, which is attached to the leveling corner using mortar. The correctness of the work is controlled by the same level.
As you can see, the devil is not so scary ... And now about a more complicated procedure. About how to plaster the walls of the beacons.
We work with lighthouses
This method allows you to get at the output almost flat surface. When working with beacons, the cement-based mixture is used for plastering, but the profile should be fixed on the wall with a gypsum mortar, as it dries faster. So, the algorithm of action.
Lighthouses are special metal profiles that can be purchased at almost any hardware store. Before buying them, measure the height and area of the room to be finished. And then make the calculations. Profile must be installed every one and a half meters. The distance from the first beacon to the angle is no more than fifteen, a maximum of twenty centimeters. As for the length, it is different, but not less than two and a half meters.
So, the description of the process.Vertically applied to the wall every thirty centimeters like bumps of gypsum mortar. Then carefully insert a beacon in them (its length should correspond to the height of the room). And then, checking the level, we press the profile into the solution so that in the final result it will be ideally even. First, we install two lighthouses in the corners in this way. After that, stretch the thread between them (under the ceiling and closer to the floor). It will serve as a guide for installing beacons in the middle of the wall. Now be sure to wait for the complete drying of the solution. Seasoned masters often take alabaster to strengthen lighthouses. But this method is not entirely suitable for a beginner, since such a solution dries out almost instantly. So it is better to be patient.
Next you need to plaster the gaps between the lighthouses. Starting from the floor, we throw a solution. And then the rule is, drawing them along lighthouses (almost like on rails), we tighten and align it. Filling gaps should be carried out in parts. Professionals recommend that after the gap is completely filled, the rule is to be repeated several times and in the vertical direction.This will make the wall more smooth.
At the end of the work and after drying the solution, some then break out the profile, and the resulting cavities are again sealed. By and large, except for additional difficulties, it will bring nothing. So the lighthouses can be safely left in the wall. They are made of stainless metal, and therefore no unpleasant surprises in the process of further finishing will not be presented.
As a rule, if such global works are carried out indoors, then all is exposed to finishing. That is why the beginning master is interested in how to plaster slopes. We answer. Just like everything else. Using the solution and level. As you know, the slopes (it does not matter, they are door or window) have external corners. For their finishing a special profile is used. About him, we have already mentioned above. As for the material used, if the defects on the slopes are large, then it is preferable to take cement mortar, since it will be necessary to apply plaster in several stages. If not, plaster will do. The algorithm is similar. Preparation of the surface, spreading the solution, leveling it with a spatula.The final stage - finishing putty, painting.
Everyone knows that the surface of the walls are different. This may be drywall, which, by the way, there is no need to plaster, as the walls of it are already smooth, and brick, and wood, and blocks. Finishing each of the surfaces has its own nuances. What in a few words - below.
What plastering walls of foam blocks? For these purposes, usually take a cement mixture. You can ordinary, but you can purchase and special, created for the decoration of this particular material. True, its cost is much higher. Make a reservation right away. The process of plastering itself - regardless of what the base surface is made of - is the same in all cases. The difference is only in the presence or absence of any additional steps. For example, for plastering foam blocks, you must first reinforce the surface with a reinforcing mesh. It is mounted on special hooks. And then carry out finishing work. What plastering walls of aerated concrete? The same, than and from foam concrete blocks - cement mortar. Only here it is already possible to do without reinforcement, it is enough to put a polyurethane mesh net under the solution.
On the question of how to plaster brick walls, you can answer the following.If they are very uneven, then you also need to first reinforce. And as the material to use the same cement mortar. With almost perfect brickwork it is quite possible to work with a plaster mix. But, as already mentioned, it is more expensive, and therefore for large areas is not very acceptable (for reasons of economy). As for how to plaster wooden walls, everything is unique. Only on the crate, and only plaster solution. The latter has already been said a lot of things, so we will not repeat. As for the so-called shingles, it is made of laths, nailing them crosswise. After that, I treat it with an antiseptic, and then put plaster on the surface.