Endometriosis: what is it?
Watch the video
Endometriosis is a gynecological disease, during which the cells of the inner surface of the uterus grow beyond the acceptable limits. This means that the body of this organ begins to actively develop in atypical places: the intestines, ovaries, peritoneum, bladder. Endometriosis occurs in women of reproductive age (from 25-40 years old) due to a number of different reasons.
Causes of Endometriosis
The etiology of endometriosis is not fully understood by specialists. Doctors in most cases can not establish the true cause of this disease. But there are a number of factors that can trigger endometriosis:
- genetic predisposition (often familial forms of this disease);
- menstruation, during which the endometrial cells along with the blood are transported outside the uterus, where their proliferation occurs;
- hormonal disorder;
- reduced immune function of the body;
- liver disease;
- the presence of an intrauterine device;
- gynecological surgery;
Symptoms of endometriosis
Endometriosis is asymptomatic and extremely rare. In the presence of such a disease, a woman may note the following symptoms:
- pain during sexual intercourse and defecation;
- severe menstrual pain;
- dark-colored blood-secretions that occur before and after menstruation;
- chronic pain in the lower back and abdomen;
- painful urination.
Diagnosis of Endometriosis
Despite the fact that endometriosis has a benign nature, it is very important to diagnose it in a timely manner. This can be done using the following methods:
- Magnetic resonance imaging;
- spiral computed tomography;
- blood test aimed at identifying tumor markers in the body.
A timely diagnosis allows you to fully recover from this disease and avoid complications.
Treatment of endometriosis
Today, it is possible to get rid of endometriosis with the help of conservative or surgical treatment. Which option will be used, the doctor chooses on the basis of the results of the survey.
With conservative treatment, hormone therapy takes place with the help of modern and effective drugs, including:
- gonadotropin-releasing hormones (Zoladex);
- antigonadotropins ("Danazole");
- progestogens (duphaston).
In addition to them, ancillary drugs are used, which are aimed at neutralizing the symptoms of the disease:
- anti-inflammatory drugs;
- analgesics and antispasmodics (have analgesic effect);
- immunomodulators (aimed at improving the immune forces of the body);
- iron preparations (compensate for the effects of severe blood loss);
- vitamins C and A.
If hormone therapy does not produce the desired results, surgery may be required. It means laparoscopy. During it, small cuts are made (no more than 1 cm), and then removal or cauterization of foci of endometriosis is carried out. After surgery, the patient must take hormones for 4-6 months and visit the doctor several times a month.
Complications of Endometriosis
Now let's talk about what is dangerous endometriosis.If you do not begin to treat the disease in the early stages with the help of complex therapy, it can lead to the following complications:
- infertility (observed in 25-40% of cases);
- posthemorrhagic anemia;
- adhesive processes in the abdominal cavity and small pelvis;
- neurological disorders;
- endometrioid ovarian cyst;
- endometrial tissue degeneration, which leads to the appearance of a malignant tumor.
Prevention of endometriosis
To avoid the occurrence of endometriosis, it is necessary to carry out preventive measures:
- visit the gynecologist at least 1 time in 6 months;
- lead a healthy lifestyle, give up bad habits and adhere to proper nutrition;
- Undergo ultrasound every six months, especially those who have a family predisposition;
- use effective contraceptives to eliminate unwanted pregnancies, since abortion can provoke this ailment.