Dystrophy is ... Dystrophy: description, types and features of treatment
Dystrophy is a violation of metabolic processes, due to which the normal development of an organism or a separate organ slows down. Disorder can be detected at any age. However, it is most often diagnosed in children. Consider further the causes and symptoms of dystrophy of different species.
Muscular dystrophy is a chronic hereditary pathology. It is expressed in the degeneration of the muscles supporting the bone skeleton. Currently, there are 9 varieties of this pathology. They differ in the localization of the disorder, characteristics, intensity of development, age-related features.
Modern medicine cannot designate all the mechanisms that trigger the degenerative process. However, it has been unequivocally established that muscular dystrophy is caused by mutations in the autosomal dominant genome responsible for the regeneration and synthesis of the protein involved in the formation of muscles.Localization of the pathology varies, depending on the specific chromosome damaged during the changes.
Muscular dystrophy is characterized by a set of basic manifestations. However, depending on the location of the disorder, specific signs may occur. The main manifestations include:
- Gait disturbances. They are caused by a lack of lean muscle mass.
- Decreased muscle tone.
- Atrophy of skeletal muscles.
- Loss of motor abilities acquired before the onset of pathology. In particular, the patient ceases to hold his head, sit, walk. Other skills may be lost.
- Dullness of pain sensitivity in the muscles.
- Increased fatigue.
- Frequent cases of falling.
- Replacement of muscle fibers with connective tissue. This leads to an increase in muscle volume, which is especially noticeable in the gastrocnemius.
- Difficulties appear when jumping and running, rising from lying and sitting positions.
- Decreased intelligence.
It must be said that it is impossible to completely cure muscle dystrophy. Therapeutic measures envisaged today are aimed at maximizing the clinical manifestations of the pathology and the prevention of complications.
The main and most obvious sign that dystrophy has is a decrease in body weight. At the same time, pathology has several forms and degrees. In particular, there are:
- Hypotrophy. It is characterized by insufficient weight relative to the age and height of the patient.
- Hypostatur. In this case, the lack of mass and insufficient growth are uniform.
- Paratrophy. It is characterized by overweight relative to the length of the body.
The first form is considered the most common.
There are also three. The main difference between degrees is the intensity of the pathology. In addition, they differ in the level of body mass deficiency. To determine the degree of dystrophy, the actual weight of the patient is compared with a normal indicator typical of people of his age and gender. 1 tbsp. - mass deficit of 10-20%, 2 - 20-30%, 3 - more than 30%.
Classification of pathology can be carried out according to various criteria. One of them is the time of occurrence:
- Prenatal dystrophy. This disorder occurs during fetal development. As a result, the child is born with the disease.
- Postnatal dystrophy. This violation develops after birth.This type of pathology refers to acquired diseases.
In addition, there is a combined form. In this case, the deviations in the mass are the result of factors in the prenatal period and after birth.
Dystrophy can be primary or secondary. The first arises and develops as an independent disease. Moreover, a variety of factors influence its course. The secondary form is a consequence of transferred diseases, as a result of which food digestion is slowed down and metabolic processes are disturbed.
The main reason for which intrauterine dystrophy occurs is toxicosis during pregnancy. It has also been established that conceiving a child before 20 or after 40 years also significantly increases the risk of a disease. Equally important are such negative factors as constant stress, nutrition imbalance, lack of beneficial elements in food, smoking, and other bad habits. The occurrence of congenital dystrophy can also be caused by the work of a pregnant woman in hazardous working conditions at enterprises processing chemical compounds. Of particular importance are the own pathologies of a woman.
Its occurrence is associated with the influence of internal and external factors. The first include:
- Deviations of physical development.
- Disorders of the endocrine system.
- Violations in the central nervous system.
A separate group consists of factors such as food allergies, some hereditary diseases. Among the latter, in particular, cystic fibrosis, lactase deficiency, celiac disease, etc. Another very large group includes gastrointestinal tract pathologies. They are noted mainly in adult patients. These include:
- Oncological diseases.
- Polyps (multiple or single).
- Gallstone disease.
These include circumstances in connection with which the patient does not receive the required amount of nutrient compounds for the formation of normal body weight. First of all, it is a food factor. He is considered the most significant in the group. If we talk about children, then dystrophy develops in them due to the lack of breast milk, the wrong mixture for feeding or late introduction of complementary foods. In adults, the disorder begins as a result of calorie deficiency, unbalanced diet, increased or decreased carbohydrate or protein content. The second factor is toxic.It is associated with poor ecology, food poisoning and other forms of intoxication, prolonged medication. Another factor is social. In children, frequent causes of dystrophy are constant quarrels with parents, their lack of proper attention. In adults, predisposing factors are frequent stress, problems at work or in personal life.
Features of manifestation
Dystrophy may be accompanied by minor signs or cause serious problems. Common symptoms include weight loss, loss of appetite, growth retardation (in children), fatigue, and sleep disorders. The severity of the pathology will affect the intensity of the clinical picture.
Some stages of the disease are characterized by specific signs.
For the first degree is characterized by anxiety, sleep disturbance, loss of appetite. These symptoms are irregular and slightly pronounced. In addition, the patient has a decrease in the elasticity of the skin, weak muscle tone. In some cases, there are some minor problems with the stool (diarrhea, constipation). If a child has a disease, then he will be more likely to be infected than his peers.It should be said that the mass loss (10-20%) is often difficult to distinguish from the usual thinness.
In the second stage of the pathology, the signs become more pronounced. Patients start to sleep poorly, move less. Often they refuse to eat. There is a significant decrease in muscle tone. The skin becomes flabby, dry, sagging covers. Thinness increases, the ribs become visible. In addition, exhaustion is observed in the arms and legs. In weight, there are obvious deviations, children lagging 2-4 cm in height from their peers. In addition, patients have frequent vomiting, nausea, regurgitation (in children). The stool may contain undigested foods. Avitaminosis is intensively developed, manifested by dry skin, brittle hair and nails. Cracks appear in the corners of the mouth. There are also violations of thermoregulation. The body quickly cools or overheats. The nervous system also suffers. A person becomes vocal, nervous, restless.
In the third stage, the external signs of pathology become very pronounced. The man looks like a mummy.
As is known, this body performs the most important functions.In the presence of predisposing factors, fatty degeneration of the liver may develop. It is a chronic pathology of a non-inflammatory nature. The disease manifests itself in the accumulation of fatty inclusions in the body, the degeneration of hepatocytes due to a violation of metabolic processes. It has been established that pathology occurs in women more often than in men, 1.5 times. As a rule, fatty liver is diagnosed after 45 years. In the absence of adequate therapy, the disease may progress. The consequences of this can be quite serious, up to the death of the patient.
Dystrophy treatment is carried out by such drugs as:
- Essentiale, Essliver, Phosphogliv.
- Heptral, Glutargin, Methionine.
- "Hofitol", "Gepabene", "Kars".
Vitamins B2, PP, E, and C are also prescribed to patients. In addition, Ursosan, Ursofalk, etc. are prescribed. All medicines are selected individually.
This name is quite a large group of various pathologies. Regardless of the provoking factor, the nature and characteristics of the course of the disease, tissue death is the main symptom by which eye dystrophy is characterized. Treatment of the pathology should be carried out in a timely and adequate clinical manner.It is said that the disease is accompanied by intense loss of vision. Therefore, in the absence of timely and qualified assistance, complete blindness can occur. Retinal dystrophy is usually diagnosed in people with diabetes, atherosclerosis, hypertension, overweight. The triggering factor is smoking. Stress, viral infections, excessive exposure to sunlight, lack of trace elements and vitamins can affect the development of pathology.
Retinal dystrophy: treatment
In the treatment of pathology using an integrated approach. First of all, the patient is prescribed vasodilators. These include, in particular, such drugs as "No-shpa". Also, the patient is prescribed:
- Angioprotectors - means "Vazonit", "Actovegin", "Ascorutin", etc.
- Antiplatelet drugs - the drug "Thrombostop", for example.
- Vitamins E, A and group B.
Regular medication can reduce or even completely stop the development of the disease. If the pathology has passed into a more severe stage, physiotherapeutic methods are used. Among the main ones, it is possible to note laser stimulation of the retina, photo-, magneto-electrostimulation.