Concrete stairs in private homes. Decorating concrete stairs do it yourself
A concrete staircase will allow interconnecting the floors, creating a lift in the porch area and making the space more comfortable to use. Such structures are not very expensive, and it is extremely easy to mount them. Conducting such work will be under the power of any home master.
Advantages of concrete stairs
Making concrete stairs is justified. If you build such a design, following all the rules prescribed by the technology, the system will demonstrate strength and long life. In addition to these, there are some other advantages. Among them is the opportunity to supplement the main building with a structure that gives it additional rigidity. There is another advantage that makes concrete stairs among those made of other materials.This is the preservation of stability during the whole period of operation.
The manufacture of concrete stairs is usually completed by enriching the structures, you can use all sorts of finishes. You can install concrete stairs in rooms that are characterized by high humidity. But if you plan to carry out the work yourself, then the cost of construction becomes equal to the cost of materials.
Cons of concrete stairs
Concrete stairs, like all those for the manufacture of which other materials are used, have certain disadvantages, they are expressed in considerable weight and large labor costs in the manufacture.
Before starting work, it is worth considering that you will have the task of performing three stages, the first of which involves creating formwork, the second - carrying out reinforcement, while the final stage is concreting. Formwork formation can be considered the most time consuming process, since the quality of the work and the quality of the work will determine the appearance of the staircase and its shape.
If the concrete staircase that you have to do is the first one in your wizard practice, then you should not immediately try to create complex structures; Such a system should be located between two walls. In this case, you should not install side formwork, as it will be the wall.
A little more labor-consuming to implement will be a staircase that has two marches and a platform between floors. As an alternative, you can use the treads. To make the last of them will be more difficult compared to the site, but they allow you to create additional space due to the arrangement of a short flight of stairs.
Definition of construction parameters
Concrete stairs, like any other, should be comfortable to use and safe. The main parameter is the angle of inclination. If the work is carried out in the inner space of a private house, then the angle, as a rule, is 25-45 °. If young healthy people live in the house, then to save space you can use a slope of 40-45 °.While the movement on it can be quite unsafe and very difficult for the elderly and children.
Concrete stairs in private houses in some cases have a not so impressive slope, in this case, the steps get a small height, and the steps when moving on them become “mincing”. Defining the parameters of the staircase, keep in mind that the construction of a structure with a slope of 25-30 ° will imply a more impressive consumption of materials (1.7-2.3 times), if you make a comparison with a staircase, the angle of which is slightly more - about 40-45 °
Making concrete stairs in private houses, the masters, having determined the angle of inclination, proceed to the calculation of the number of steps. It should be noted that the step length is approximately 60 cm. In this case, the width of the step within 30 cm will be the most optimal; a person with 45 sizes of shoes can freely climb this ladder. But the most suitable step height is 18 cm, but it should not be more than 25 cm.
Making concrete stairs, craftsmen initially create a formwork. This stage is accompanied by the installation of temporary kosoura, which are inclined elements that take on the load at the time of pouring the solution.For this you can use a bar 50x150 mm. It is necessary to abandon the steel stationary kosour, as they will give the ladder "heaviness." The lower part of the formwork should be created using waterproof 2.5-cm plywood. Choose smooth sheets, as this will affect the evenness of the bottom of the stairs. This will then allow for finishing works that will not be accompanied by difficulties. The formwork must be supplemented with retaining posts, in which quality timber can be used.
Making concrete stairs, the professionals in the next stage lay the reinforcement. For what it is recommended to use rods Ø12 mm, it is necessary to complete the installation, trying to create a grid with a cell size of 150x200 mm. The rods must be connected with a wire and a special hook. It is possible to use the connection of the reinforcement and with the help of welding, however, the cross section of the reinforcement should not be reduced. The resulting frame should be placed in the lower layer of the march.
Now comes the turn of the formwork assembly for the steps themselves. The end components of the formwork, which are arranged vertically, as well as the side formwork must be fixed to each other with steel corners mounted on the screws.
Concrete stairs with their own hands can be made using concrete mixers. Experts advise to mix the solution mechanically, since the manual method reduces the strength of concrete by 20%. This is due to the fact that the components of the mixture are distributed unevenly. The preparation of the mortar should be done in the following order: initially, rubble should be poured into the concrete mixer, followed by sand and cement. In this state, the ingredients are mixed for a minute. Then you can gradually add water and plasticizer, without stopping stirring for another 4 minutes.
Concrete stairs with their own hands are made taking into account the initial pouring of several lower steps. In particular, it is important to consider if the concrete is prepared in a liquid consistency. When laying the solution, do not forget about its compaction, it can be done with a vibrator. Trowel will allow to form steps. After completion of these works, the staircase is closed with polyethylene.
Tools and materials
Concrete stairs to the second floor are made using:
Finishing concrete stairs
Finishing concrete stairs traditionally made of wood. If you decide to use it for upgrading, it is recommended to use hard wood, such as beech or oak. It is necessary to make blanks from the material, which will play the role of treads. Their width is usually equal to 32 cm, whereas the thickness is 4.5 cm. Other materials can be used, for example, natural or artificial stone, but then the construction will be more expensive. Finishing the concrete stairs should be accompanied by fixing of polyethylene foam under the wood, which will serve as a waterproofing.
It is possible to supplement the construction with forged elements, then it is permissible to refine the surface with dry formulations intended for dilution with water. This will make the stairs elegant.