Black pepper: as it grows in nature and at home
Black pepper is a popular and beloved all over the world seasoning, present in the kitchen stores of almost every hostess. How grows black pepper peas?
Useful properties of black pepper
Excellent seasoning for meat, fish and vegetable dishes in addition to culinary use has a mass of beneficial for the body healing properties.Peas of black pepper contain in their composition vitamins useful for the body, essential oils, glycosides, thanks to which the plant is successfully used by folk medicine for:
- strengthening the nervous system;
- purification of the body;
- normalization of digestion, liver and stomach work;
- stimulation of appetite;
- improve memory.
In the era of antiquity, such a culture servedequivalent to weighing apothecary powders: exactly 460 grams should weigh 1,000 peas of such a high-quality crop as pepper black. How does the "king of spices" grow in nature? Is it possible to grow it at home? What care does this exotic culture require? Where does black pepper grow?
Description of Malabar Berries
In nature, black pepper, otherwise known as"Malabar berry", is a perennial tree-like liana of the Pepper family with a long flexible stem and airy roots formed at the nodes. Predominantly, such a plant is found in forest tracts, it encircles trees and is capable of reaching 15 meters. The leaves are 80-100 mm long, greyish-green, leathery, regular, ovoid in shape. The small white flowers are externally unattractive, collected in drooping small ears.Fruits - placed in a hard shell sphericaldrupes characterized by burning taste. At first green, with time they get red. It is during this period that the harvest is collected. In the process of drying in the sun, the fruits change their color and turn into the usual black pepper.
How the culture grows and fructifies at home
The birthplace of pepper creeper is Malabarcoast of India. Also, the culture is successfully cultivated in countries such as Brazil, Indonesia, the island of Java, Sri Lanka. In areas with the habitual subtropical climate, it is able to rejoice the crop twice a year for 20-50 years.
By the way, white pepper is the same black, onlypurified from pericarp mechanically. To make it freshly picked ripened fruits should be soaked in water for about 7 days. This operation helps to soak and soften the fetal envelope. Then it is separated and dried free seeds.
How does black pepper grow in peas?conditions? Planting and caring for a spicy culture is not particularly difficult. It is enough to provide the plant with the usual moist growth conditions, and the crop on the windowsill will be happy twice a year.
Growing black pepper: features
For planting as a seedthe pepper, bought in the store, will be suitable for picking peas from which it is necessary to choose the most beautiful and large peas, soak in water for 24 hours, then put it into a prepared container.
Optimal soil composition for the plantis a mixture of sand, humus, leaf and turf in a ratio of 1: 1: 2: 4. Be sure to ensure good drainage. It is desirable to plant the landing in early summer. Approximately in 3-4 weeks it will be possible to observe, how black pepper appears from the ground. How does the young culture grow at home?Black pepper is a plant that loves moisture andheat; to frost it is not adapted. Therefore, maintenance of moisture is an important factor of care. To do this, a pot of room culture is recommended to place on a pallet with peat or wet claydite, and black pepper periodically sprinkle with constant water at room temperature. At a lack of moisture, the plant will react with the brown color of the tips of the leaves; with its overabundance, especially dangerous in the winter, the leaves will turn yellow and gradually fade.
Choose the location
Grow black pepper recommended in lighta place protected from direct sunlight. In the room conditions, eastern and western windows are most suitable for this. The lack of light can be judged by stretching the stems and exposing them.
When grown on the southern side of the plant, it is required to provide shading. During active growth, the preferred air temperature is + 20-25aboutC. In winter, the indicator should not fall below +16aboutFROM. In winter it is better to keep the plant on the windowsill, in the summer - to take out to the open air. In the first year of life, spicy culture can grow up to 2 meters. Flowering occurs in April-May. With proper care, black pepper will begin to bear fruit for the second year.
Rules for watering and dressing
From spring to autumn, the plant needs to provide abundant watering, which must be done as the upper soil layer dries up. In winter, the supply of moisture should be reduced.
In the spring-summer period it is important to feed pepperthe black. How does the culture grow during regular supplementary feeding? Timely provision of mineral fertilizers, conducted no more than 2 times a month, as a result will give a beautiful healthy plant that pleases with its own grown spice-fruits.It is recommended to transplant a young pepper every spring, for adult plants - every 2 years. Reproduction of black pepper is made by the method of propagation, division of the bush, layers and seeds.
Universal spice is used incooking meat, fish, sauces, gravy, first courses, marinades, vegetable salads. The greatest flavor is inherent in ground peppercorns. Add seasoning is recommended a few minutes before the meal is ready. Keep it in a sealed package, otherwise the spice will quickly exhale and lose valuable properties.