The work of the digestive system can be compared with a moving conveyor. Here there is a gradual decomposition of complex food substances into simpler components, which our body is able to digest and assimilate. The stomach is responsible for the breakdown of organic substances and their promotion to the next section of the gastrointestinal tract.
What you need to know about the stomach?- The volume of an empty stomach of an adult usually does not exceed 500 ml, after eating it increases several times and is about 4 liters.
- The acidity of an empty healthy stomach is 1.5 - 2.0 pH. For comparison, a solution of inorganic acids with this pH can successfully dissolve polymers.
- During the day, the glands produce from 2 to 2.5 liters of gastric juice.
Anatomical informationThe stomach is a continuation of the esophagus and one of the most important organs of the digestive system.It is located under the diaphragm (in the upper part of the abdominal cavity). From the esophagus and duodenum, it is separated by a sphincter (circular muscle).
How does the gastric wall?There are 3 layers of the gastric wall, namely:
- Outer or serous layer. It is a single-layer film that provides gliding and moistening of food.
- Slimy or internal. The layer is in close relationship with the muscles and has a rather complex structure. Its cells form glands responsible for the synthesis of enzymes and electrolytes.
What are the functions of the gastric glands?The gastric mucosa contains many glands, among which there are:
- Major glands. They are responsible for the production of inactive proteins of pepsinogen, from which pepsin is subsequently formed. Such glands on the mucous most.
- Lining glands.They synthesize hydrochloric acid, and are also responsible for maintaining the optimum level of acidity. High acidity in the stomach cavity is a kind of disinfection, a way to protect the body from numerous pathogenic microflora. Hydrochloric acid is also needed to accelerate the breakdown of food.
A few words about physiology1. The stomach has two main functions:
- Responsible for the physical and enzymatic processing of the food lump.
- Moves the prepared mass further along the digestive tract.
The delay of food in the stomach can be explained by several factors, including the stretching of the gastric walls, the change in pH, and the physical and chemical characteristics of food.The lower sphincter is revealed after a signal from the autonomic nervous system, which sends impulses from the brain to the muscle tissue of the stomach. After that, the substance treated in the stomach enters the duodenum.
Gastric secretionGastric juice is a fairly aggressive environment, the indicators of which affect the work of the entire gastrointestinal tract. Several systems are simultaneously responsible for the secretion of juice, an important role in the process is assigned to hormones that secrete tissues of the digestive organs.
When food masses enter the stomach, all the glands begin to work in a strengthened mode, stimulating the processing of the resulting organic substances. With an increase in acidity, the lining glands begin to work more slowly, which ultimately leads to an increase in pH or, in other words, a decrease in the level of acidity.
The editors of uznayvse.ru wish you good health and recommend you follow the diet.