Angioedema - what is it? Causes, symptoms, treatment
Allergic reactions - a very common phenomenon. And they are often accompanied by a variety of states. That is why this article will discuss such a problem as angioedema: what it is, how to diagnose it correctly and how to cope with this condition.
Initially, you need to understand what you have to deal with in this article. So, angioedema, what is it? First of all it should be noted that it occurs due to an allergic reaction. So, it is swelling of the mucous membranes, skin, as well as subcutaneous tissue. Pathological processes are most often localized in the neck, larynx, face, on the hands, feet, and also mainly on the upper part of the body.
Angioedema - what is it? The answer to this question is already very clear.However, it is necessary to clarify that this condition is also called angioedema. Why is that? It's simple, for the first time back in 1882, the German surgeon and therapist Heinrich Quincke discovered and described the symptoms of this problem. Modern experts say that this problem occurs predominantly in young women than in men. However, more and more similar symptoms occur in children of different ages.
The main causes of
Why does this condition occur? What are the reasons for its appearance? So, first of all you need to understand that this is an allergic disease. Therefore, it can occur after contact of a person with a specific allergen. It can be almost anything: dust, pollen, animal dander, certain odors, or food. However, angioedema most often occurs for the following reasons:
- Acceptance of milk, eggs (especially important when it comes to small children).
- Citrus fruits, as well as red fruits (strawberries, strawberries).
- Various dyes and food additives.
- Medications, especially antibiotics (Penicillin often causes this condition).
- Insect bites.
Other causes of angioedema
However, this is not a complete list.Puffiness may occur due to improper functioning of certain organs or body systems (for example, the thyroid gland). Tumors and various blood problems can also trigger this condition. And, of course, there is such a thing as hereditary angioedema. It occurs as a result of congenital failure. In this case, the child has a lack of certain enzymes involved in the destruction of substances that lead to edema. Doctors are confident that this pathology occurs most often in men. It is provoked by traumatization or by strong nervous overstrains, stressful condition. It is also important to note that in about a third of cases the cause of the occurrence of angioedema cannot be established.
The main symptoms
What symptoms will be characteristic for this disease? So initially it should be noted that this problem is characterized by a sharp emergence and a very rapid development.
- Angioedema of the larynx. In this case, the patient may appear hoarseness, there is a barking cough, breathing gradually becomes difficult. The patient increases anxiety.In this case, the skin may acquire a bluish tinge, and later pales. Sometimes patients have a loss of consciousness.
- The mucous membranes of the oral cavity can swell - the tongue, tonsils, soft palate.
- Angioedema of the face. At the same time lips, cheeks, eyelids swell.
- Often there is swelling in the urogenital system. Also at this time the patient feels the signs of acute cystitis, often there is difficulty urinating.
- There is also angioedema of the brain. In this case, seizures may occur. Other indicators - neurological disorders.
- It also happens that a person's organs of the digestive tract swell. In this case, we are talking about the so-called "acute abdomen". This causes severe pain, various dyspeptic disorders.
What is dangerous angioedema? Quincke edema most often extends to the larynx, lower lip, tongue. And this often leads to asphyxia, i.e. choking. That is why it is important for the patient to provide timely assistance. After all, symptoms can affect the brain. Sometimes this condition even leads to death, i.e. lethal.
We consider further such a problem as angioedema. What is it - figured out. Everything is clear and with common symptoms. However, it is also important to clarify what urgent actions need to be given to the patient before the arrival of the ambulance. After all, even the patient's life may depend on it.
- Initially, it is necessary to limit the contact of the patient with the allergen, which allegedly led to the occurrence of the problem. If it is, for example, a bee sting, you should try to pull out the sting.
- Immediately the patient should be given an antihistamine. This may be a drug such as "Suprastin", "Tavegil", "Fenkarol" (if necessary, you can take immediately two tablets). However, if the swelling is very strong, it is better to inject an antiallergic drug. In this case, you can use the tool "Dimedrol".
- Next, you need to try to reassure the person, it is better to lay. He must be distracted by something.
- You can begin the process of removing from the body the allergen. In this case, the patient is shown a rich alkaline drink. So, it can be “Narzan”, “Borjomi”. You can also just dilute 1 gram of soda in a liter of pure water.
- Sorbents can also be used. In this case, it will be drugs such as "Enterosgel" or simply activated charcoal.
- Sometimes the patient suffers from itching. You can help with a cold compress applied to the affected area of the body.
And, of course, it is important to ensure the circulation of fresh air. It is also necessary to remove all items that can impede a person's breathing: soft toys, carpets, pillows, blankets and down comforters are the main accumulators of dust.
If a patient has angioedema, treatment of the problem is very important. After all, the only way to avoid serious health problems.
- Hormone therapy. In this case, glucocorticosteroids are used mainly to relieve swelling and normalize respiratory function. In this case, experts most often use drugs such as Dexamethasone and Prednisolone.
- Desensitization therapy. In this case, the patient is prescribed a course of treatment with one of the following drugs: “Dimedrol”, “Tavegil” or “Suprastin”. However, in this case, they are most often administered intravenously. This is necessary in order to reduce the sensitivity of the patient to the allergen.
Symptomatic therapy is also important.For example, in the case of high blood pressure, with bradycardia or cyanosis.